|1. TYPE OF DRUG – THEOPHYLLINE|
|Theophylline is a xanthine derivative. Theophylline is in a class of drugs called bronchodilators.
|2. INDICATIONS (USE) – THEOPHYLLINE|
|This medication is used to treat and prevent wheezing and trouble breathing caused by ongoing lung disease (e.g., asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis).
|3. MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA) – THEOPHYLLINE|
|It directly relaxes bronchial smooth muscles and pulmonary blood vessels. It causes in intracellular cAMP through inhibition of phosphodiesterase , prostaglandin angatonism , stimulation of endogenous catecholamines and cGMP inhibition.
|4. ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION – THEOPHYLLINE|
|Oral & Intra venous
|5. ONSET OF EFFECT OR ACTION – THEOPHYLLINE|
|Within 30 mins – 1 hour.
|6. DOSAGE (DOSING INFORMATION) – THEOPHYLLINE|
|5 mg/kg loading dose (patient not receiving theophylline or aminophylline). Maintenance dose: 5 mg/kg/day. Do not exceed 400 mg/day.
|7. HALF LIFE (DURATION OF ACTION) – THEOPHYLLINE|
|8 – 12 hours.
|8. ADVERSE EFFECTS OR SIDE EFFECTS – THEOPHYLLINE|
|Stomach pain/cramping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, headache, trouble sleeping, irritability, restlessness, nervousness, shaking, flushing, and increased urination may occur.
|9. CONTRAINDICATIONS – THEOPHYLLINE|
|Active peptic ulcer. Hypersensitivity, seizure disorder.
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS – THEOPHYLLINE|
|Theophylline is very similar to aminophylline and oxtriphylline. Do not take medications containing aminophylline or oxtriphylline while using theophylline.
|11. EXCRETION – THEOPHYLLINE|
|The elimination half-life varies: 30 hours for premature neonates, 24 hours for neonates, 3.5 hours for children ages 1 to 9, 8 hours for adult non-smokers, 5 hours for adult smokers, 24 hours for those with hepatic impairment, 12 hours for those with congestive heart failure NYHA class I-II, 24 hours for those with congestive heart failure NYHA class III-IV, 12 hours for the elderly.