06. AS Bodybuilders

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06. AS Bodybuilders

CATEGORY: Anabolic Steroids 100 Courses


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06 Syllabus AS Bodybuilders

Page 51





  1. Introduction 1

Statement of the Problem 1

Significance of the Study 1

Objectives of the Study 3

Definition of Terms 3

Organization of the Study 4


  1. Review of Literature 6

History 6

Therapeutic Uses of Anabolic Steroids 11

Positive Effects 12

Negative Effects 14

Summary 15

Research Perspective 16

Knowledge 16

Perception 16


  1. Methodology 18

Research Design 18

Sample 18

Research Tool 18


  1. Analysis of the Research Data 20

Descriptive Analysis 20

Demographic Data 20

Knowledge of the Positive Effects 20

Perception of Personal Benefits Derived

from the Use of Anabolic Steroids 22

Knowledge of Negative Effects 22

Males 23

Females 25

Males Responding to Negative Effects

for Females 26

Bodybuilders’ Awareness of the Use

of Anabolic Steroids 26

Summary 30


  1. Summary, Implications, Limitations and

Recommendations 31

Summary 31

Research Problem 31

Research Perspectives 32

Major Findings 32

Conclusions 35

Implications of the Study 36

Limitations of the Study 36

Recommendations for Further Study 37



  1. Questionnaire 40




  1. Perceived Positive Effects of the Use of

Anabolic Steroids 21

  1. Perceived Positive Effects Most Beneficial to

Subjects if They Were to Use Anabolic Steroids .. 23

  1. Negative Effects of the Use of Anabolic Steroids

as Perceived by Males 24

  1. Negative Effects of the Use of Anabolic Steroids

as Perceived by Females 26

  1. Male Responses Regarding Negative Effects

for Females 27

  1. Subjects’ Familiarity With the Use of Anabolic

Steroids in Bodybuilding 27

  1. Subjects’ Awareness of Sources for Obtaining

Anabolic Steroids 28

  1. Subjects’ Awareness of Persons Who Have Used

Anabolic Steroids 29

  1. Subjects’ Knowledge of Sources for Persons Who

Have Used Anabolic Steroids 30

Anabolic Steroids and Bodybuilders

The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate. Eating three to six meals per day with a meal containing 0.4-0.5 g/kg bodyweight of protein prior and subsequent to resistance training likely maximizes any theoretical benefits of nutrient timing and frequency. However, alterations in nutrient timing and frequency appear to have little effect on fat loss or lean mass retention. Among popular supplements, creatine monohydrate, caffeine and beta-alanine appear to have beneficial effects relevant to contest preparation, however others do not or warrant further study. The practice of dehydration and electrolyte manipulation in the final days and hours prior to competition can be dangerous, and may not improve appearance. Increasing carbohydrate intake at the end of preparation has a theoretical rationale to improve appearance, however it is understudied. Thus, if carbohydrate loading is pursued it should be practiced prior to competition and its benefit assessed individually. Finally, competitors should be aware of the increased risk of developing eating and body image disorders in aesthetic sport and therefore should have access to the appropriate mental health professionals.

The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing rapidly. In the United States, over 200 amateur natural (drug tested) bodybuilding contests occurred during 2013 and the number of contests is expected to increase in 2014. Preparation for bodybuilding competition involves drastic reductions in body fat while maintaining muscle mass. This is typically achieved through a decreased caloric intake, intense strength training, and increased cardiovascular exercise. Competitors partake in numerous dietary and supplementation strategies to prepare for a contest. Some have a strong scientific basis; however, many do not. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review the scientific literature on topics relevant to nutrition and supplementation for bodybuilding competition preparation. Dietary modifications during the last week to enhance muscle definition and fullness (peaking) and psychosocial issues will also be covered. Ultimately, evidence-based recommendations will be made for nutrition, supplementation, and “peak week” strategies for natural bodybuilders. As a final note, this paper does not cover training recommendations for natural bodybuilding and the training methodology used will interact with and modify the effects of any nutritional approach.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a naturally occurring hormone that is essential to human growth and the development of bodily structures. Some people produce an abnormal amount of HGH and this can cause conditions such as gigantism and acromegaly caused by an overgrowth of certain tissues. Children with gigantism can grow exceptionally tall, in rare cases over 7 and even 8 feet tall — but they are plagued with numerous musculoskeletal and medical problems.

HGH is used medically to stimulate growth in people who lack this hormone or, in some cases, to help those recovering from serious illness.

Common Reasons for HGH Use Among Athletes

Because of a perceived advantage to muscle growth and strength, bodybuilders and athletes who are tempted to take performance-enhancing drugs and supplements like steroids have taken HGH in order to gain athletic advantage, or for rapid, cosmetic muscle growth. Because HGH taken orally can be broken down by digestion, HGH is injected when used as a supplement drug.

HGH is also promoted as an agent for rejuvenation for aging people who want to look and perform younger.
Side Effects

The following side-effects of injected HGH have been reported:

• Muscle or joint pain
• Suppression of pituitary/hypothalamus gland function
• Swelling of body tissues (edema)
• Carpal tunnel syndrome (wrist nerve pain)
• Elevated blood glucose levels
What the National Strength and Conditioning Association Says About HGH

The NSCA in its 2009 review, concluded this about HGH:

“Human growth hormone increases lean body mass within weeks of administration; however, the majority of the change is within the water compartment and not in body cell mass. Human growth hormone is unlikely to be administered as a single agent but often in combination with androgens. Combined administration of hGH and resistance training is associated with minimal gains in lean body mass, muscle size, and maximal voluntary strength in men compared with resistance exercise alone.”

Another reviewer (Liu) said this:

“Claims regarding the performance-enhancing properties of growth hormone are premature and are not supported by our review of the literature. The limited published data evaluating the effects of growth hormone on athletic performance suggest that although growth hormone increases lean body mass in the short term, it does not appear to improve strength and may worsen exercise capacity. In addition, growth hormone in the healthy young is frequently associated with adverse events.”


Only one consistently positive effect of HGH use is highlighted in recent studies, and that is the enhancement of lean body mass, in other words, fat loss. This works because HGH promotes enzymes called lipases that break fat down and provide preferential burning of fat.

HGH does not appear to improve athletic performance significantly in a range of studies and provides minimal strength advantage. A few single studies have shown some increase in sprint performance in amateur athletes. Edema (swelling of tissue) may be a limiting factor.

Human Growth Hormone is banned in most countries under the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) protocols.



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