Skin/Dermatology

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By Medifit Education.
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SKIN, MEDICAL COSMETICS & DERMATOLOGY

The treatments given by Medifit Biologicals

 for

skin problems are personalized, effective and under the Medical experts supervision.

Following products are delivered door step by  Medifit Biologicals

The following products mentioned are medicated products only and should be taken strictly

under medical supervision.

INSTANT GLOW CREAM

skin 1

Unique for an instant glow, or for achieving a uniform blemishless skin.

Useful for superficial indistinct hyperpigmentation, apply daily all over the face.

Leave it overnight, do not rub or scrub too much of the cream.

Apply gently, spread it evenly with soft hands.

In three months pigmentation, superficial scars would vanish to the endorsement of all who care!

CLEAR SKIN CREAM

skin 2

Ideal skin care management for all skin types including sensitive

skin to have a glow, to wipe away dead skin, daily applications,

every night, after washing face with a face wash. Leave it overnight.

See the difference in a month`s time.

UNDER EYE CREAM

skin 3

For dark circles under the eye, whatever the cause, like circulation,

lack of sleep, fatigue, familial heredity etc. Those who are having itching

around the eyes, must first apply a cortisone cream for two months around the eyes,

then start using the undereye area, leave it overnight.

The results are welcome, encouraging and satisfactory.

WHITENING CREAM

skin 4

Is a diluted one to one Ligman`s formula, a

standard regimen for hyperpigmentation. It contains a steroid cream,

a retinoid 0.25% and ammoniated mercury in recommended

concentration, diluted one to one in cold cream.

It has to applied sparingly at night, not to be rubbed, for a maximum period of 4 months.

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SKIN FAIR CREAM

It is Kligman`s formula, except, instead of hydroquinone,

it contains ammoniated mercury. Most creams with Hydroquinone when applied irritate,

produce erythema if not applied sparingly and in small quantities.

Skin fair cream is to be applied verylittle, not to be rubbed and left overnight.

It is useful in all hyperpigmented skin conditions, specially melasma.

REJUVENATING CREAM

As the name suggests, it is for removing dead skin and bringing back baby skin.

By virtue of it being a Retino A cream, it exfoliates.

It has to be applied gently and sparingly all over face and left overnight. Useful for scars and blemishes.

RESURFACING CREAM

It is a retinoic acid cream in higher concentration designed for the treatment of scars,

specially acne scars. It is highly potent and serves as the final topical cream for

deep seated scars. It peels off the skin and has to be applied sparingly in

gradually increasing duration of time.

For e.g. apply for half an hr initially for few days then for two hours

for few days and then gradually the whole night.

SKIN GLOW CREAM

A special cream, to reduce hyperpigmentation on the face.

It is a cream specially for melasma / chloasma or pigmentation related to

sunlight or subsequent to a dermatosis. Useful in tanned skin or lighten the skin colour.

Since it has Kojic acid, Vitamin C in

therapeutic concentrations, it is non

toxic and effective.

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UNDERSTANDING SKIN & DERMATOLOGY BASICS

The skin is the body’s largest organ. It creates a barrier between the external environment and the internal organs. The skin has several important functions vital to human life. Its thickness varies depending on where it is located on the body. For example, the skin on the face is thin compared to the skin on the back.

Skin anatomy

The skin is an ever-changing organ that contains many specialized cells and structures. The skin functions as a protective barrier that interfaces with a sometimes-hostile environment. It is also very involved in maintaining the proper temperature for the body to function well. It gathers sensory information from the environment, and plays an active role in the immune system protecting us from disease. Understanding how the skin can function in these many ways starts with understanding the structure of the 3 layers of skin – the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue.

Epidermis

The epidermis is the outer layer of skin. The thickness of the epidermis varies in different types of skin. It is the thinnest on the eyelids at .05 mm and the thickest on the palms and soles at 1.5 mm.

The epidermis contains 5 layers. From bottom to top the layers are named:

• stratum basale

• stratum spinosum

• stratum granulosum

• stratum licidum

• stratum corneum

The bottom layer, the stratum basale, has cells that are shaped like columns. In this layer the cells divide and push already formed cells into higher layers. As the cells move into the higher layers, they flatten and eventually die.

The top layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, is made of dead, flat skin cells that shed about every 2 weeks.

Specialized Epidermal Cells

There are three types of specialized cells in the epidermis.

• The melanocyte produces pigment (melanin)

• The Langerhans’ cell is the frontline defense of the immune system in the skin

• The Merkel’s cell’s function is not clearly known

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Dermis

The dermis also varies in thickness depending on the location of the skin. It is .3 mm on the eyelid and 3.0 mm on the back. The dermis is composed of three types of tissue that are present throughout – not in layers. The types of tissue are:

• collagen

• elastic tissue

• reticular fibers

Layers of the Dermis

The two layers of the dermis are the papillary and reticular layers.

• The upper, papillary layer, contains a thin arrangement of collagen fibers.

• The lower, reticular layer, is thicker and made of thick collagen fibers that are arranged parallel to the surface of the skin.

Specialized Dermal Cells

The dermis contains many specialized cells and structures.

• The hair follicles are situated here with the erector pili muscle that attaches to each follicle.

• Sebaceous (oil) glands and apocrine (scent) glands are associated with the follicle.

• This layer also contains eccrine (sweat) glands, but they are not associated with hair follicles.

• Blood vessels and nerves course through this layer. The nerves transmit sensations of pain, itch, and temperature.

• There are also specialized nerve cells called Meissner’s and Vater-Pacini corpuscles that transmit the sensations of touch and pressure.

Subcutaneous Tissue

The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of fat and connective tissue that houses larger blood vessels and nerves. This layer is important is the regulation of temperature of the skin itself and the body. The size of this layer varies throughout the body and from person to person.

The skin is a complicated structure with many functions. If any of the structures in the skin are not working properly, a rash or abnormal sensation is the result. The whole specialty of dermatology is devoted to understanding the skin, what can go wrong, and what to do if something does go wrong.

Skin physiology

Function

The skin has many functions, including:

• protecting the body from heat, sunlight, injury and infection

• helping to regulate body temperature

o Blood flow to the skin’s surface allows the heat to escape to the air and helps to maintain a constant body temperature.

o Sweating allows the body to regulate its temperature. Sweating does not occur until the core body temperature is greater than 37°C.

• helping to control fluid loss

o The skin prevents the body from losing water and electrolytes. Yet, as a balance, water continually evaporates from the skin’s surface.

• getting rid of waste substances through the sweat glands

• sensation

o Nerve receptors in the skin monitor the environment by sensing cold, heat, pain and pressure. These nerve receptors are more concentrated in our fingertips.

• storing water, fat and Vitamin D

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Skin types

There are five basic skin types, including:

1. Normal skin

This type of skin has a fine, even and smooth surface due to its ideal balance between oil and moisture content and is therefore neither greasy nor dry. People who have normal skin have small, barely-visible pores. Thus, their skin usually appears clear and does not frequently develop spots and blemishes. This type of skin needs minimal and gentle treatment, but does still require maintenance.

2. Dry skin

Dry skin has a parched appearance and tends to flake easily. It is prone to wrinkles and lines due to its inability to retain moisture, as well as an inadequate production of sebum by sebaceous glands. Dry skin often has problems in cold weather, which dries it out even further. Constant protection in the form of a moisturizer by day and a moisture-rich cream by night is essential. It is important not to over-exfoliate even in cases of extreme flaking, as this only dries out the skin further; gentle exfoliants using sugar, rice bran or mild acids are the most suitable, although they should not be used more frequently than once per week to avoid causing irritation and dryness.

3. Oily skin

As its name implies, this type of skin surface is slightly to moderately greasy, which is caused by the over secretion of sebum. The excess oil on the surface of the skin causes dirt and dust from the environment to adhere to it. Oily skin is usually prone to blackheads, whiteheads, spots and pimples. It needs to be cleansed thoroughly every day, especially in hot or humid weather. Moisturizing with an oil-free, water-based and non-comedogenic moisturizer is required in addition. Exfoliation is also necessary, but over-exfoliation can cause irritation and increase in oil production; exfoliants that contain fruit acids are particularly helpful, and fine-grained exfoliants may help to clear blocked pores, discouraging breakouts and improving the skin’s appearance.

4. Combination skin

This is the most common type of skin. As the name suggests, it is a combination of both oily and dry or normal skin, where certain areas of the face are oily and the others dry. The oily parts are usually found on a central panel, called the T–Zone, consisting of the forehead, nose and chin. The dry areas usually consist of the cheeks and the areas around the eyes and mouth. In such cases, each part of the face should be treated according to its skin type. There are also skin care products made especially for those who have combination skin; these contain ingredients that cater to both skin types.

5. Sensitive skin

Sensitive skin has a tendency to react to many potential triggers with irritation, redness, stinging or burning, flaking, lumpiness and rashes. The most common causes of irritation are chemical dyes and fragrances, soaps, some flower and spice oils, shaving creams, tanning lotions or spray tans, changes in temperature, excessive cleansing or exfoliating, waxing, threading, shaving and bleaching. People with sensitive skin should try to avoid products with unnecessary fragrances or dyes, and generally avoid using products that cause irritation. Sensitive skin is typically dry, but can be oily, normal or combination as well.

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By Medifit Education.

www.themedifit.in