Prostate gland

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By Medifit Education

 

PROSTATE GLAND

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THIS SECTION DESCRIBES THE EFFECT OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS ON PROSTATE GLAND.

An O shaped gland in males that secretes a fluid into the semen that acts to improve the movement and viability of sperm.

The prostate is a gland that men have in the pelvic area. The urethra runs through the gland. If the prostate grows, the urethra can become constricted. Prostate enlargement in young men is usually benign. If problems arise with urination, part of the prostate can usually be removed to provide relief.

Androgenic-anabolic steroids has been demonstrated to have profound effects on the human prostate gland, including an increase in prostatic volume, reduction in urine flow rate and an alteration in voiding patterns.

The use of anabolic androgenic steroids in rats promotes structural changes in the prostate. We observed structural changes in the weight, volume and epithelium height of the prostate ventral lobe and a predominance of collagen fibers.

The prostate is influenced by the serum levels of testosterone, and the use of AAS can also cause morphological changes in prostate tissue. These findings suggest that AAS can provoke functional changes and diseases of the prostate as well as lowered fertility.

Steroids convert to Dihydrotestosterone and its variants, which can enlarge the prostate gland increasing the risk of urination problems and prostate cancer.

There are concerns about potential effects of androgens on the risk of prostate disease. The long-term effects of supraphysiologic doses of androgens on the risk of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and lower urinary tract symptoms are unknown. The effects on the prostate likely depend on the chemical structure and androgenicity of the drugs.

 

THE PROSTATE:

The prostate is part of the male reproductive system. It is about the size of a walnut and weighs about an ounce. The prostate is below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The prostate goes all the way around a tube called the urethra. The urethra carries urine from the bladder out through the penis. The main job of the prostate is to make fluid for semen. During ejaculation, sperm made in the testicles moves to the urethra. At the same time, fluid from the prostate and the seminal vesicles also moves into the urethra. This mixture-semen-goes through the urethra and out the penis.

The prostate gland makes fluid that forms part of semen. The prostate lies just below the bladder in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine and semen through the penis and out of the body).

 

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BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH):

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate. The prostate goes through two main growth periods as a man ages. The first occurs early in puberty, when the prostate doubles in size. The second phase of growth begins around age 25 and continues during most of a man’s life. As you age, your prostate may get larger. Benign prostatic hyperplasia often occurs with the second growth phase.

As the prostate enlarges, it can then squeeze down on your urethra. The bladder wall becomes thicker. Eventually, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty completely, leaving some urine in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and urinary retention–the inability to empty the bladder completely–cause many of the problems associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. BPH is benign. This means it is not cancer. It does not cause nor lead to cancer. But BPH and cancer can happen at the same time.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate gland camera.gif. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. As the prostate gets bigger, it may squeeze or partly block the urethra. This often causes problems with urinating.

BPH occurs in almost all men as they age. BPH is not cancer. An enlarged prostate can be a nuisance. But it is usually not a serious problem. About half of all men older than 75 have some symptoms.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is probably a normal part of the aging process in men, caused by changes in hormone balance and in cell growth.

 

BPH CAUSES URINARY PROBLEMS SUCH AS:

Trouble getting a urine stream started and completely stopped (dribbling).

Often feeling like you need to urinate. This feeling may even wake you up at night.

A weak urine stream.

A sense that your bladder is not completely empty after you urinate.

In a small number of cases, BPH may cause the bladder to be blocked, making it impossible or extremely hard to urinate. This problem may cause backed-up urine (urinary retention), leading to bladder infections or stones, or kidney damage.

BPH does not cause prostate cancer and does not affect a man’s ability to father children. It does not cause erection problems.

 

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WHAT CAUSES BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?

The cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not well understood; however, it occurs mainly in older men. Benign prostatic hyperplasia does not develop in men whose testicles were removed before puberty. For this reason, some researchers believe factors related to aging and the testicles may cause benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Throughout their lives, men produce testosterone, a male hormone, and small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone. As men age, the amount of active testosterone in their blood decreases, which leaves a higher proportion of estrogen. Scientific studies have suggested that benign prostatic hyperplasia may occur because the higher proportion of estrogen within the prostate increases the activity of substances that promote prostate cell growth.

Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male hormone that plays a role in prostate development and growth. Some research has indicated that even with a drop in blood testosterone levels, older men continue to produce and accumulate high levels of DHT in the prostate. This accumulation of DHT may encourage prostate cells to continue to grow. Scientists have noted that men who do not produce DHT do not develop benign prostatic hyperplasia.

 

PROSTATE CANCER:

Prostate cancer is a disease which only affects men. Cancer begins to grow in the prostate – a gland in the male reproductive system.

Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Prostate cancer often has no early symptoms. Advanced prostate cancer can cause men to urinate more often or have a weaker flow of urine, but these symptoms can also be caused by benign prostate conditions.

 

Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are older than 65 years and do not die from the disease. Finding and treating prostate cancer before symptoms occur may not improve health or help you live longer. Talk to your doctor about your risk of prostate cancer and whether you need screening tests.

In the vast majority of cases, the prostate cancer starts in the gland cells – this is called adenocarcinoma. In this article, prostate cancer refers just to adenocarcinoma.

Prostate cancer is mostly a very slow progressing disease. In fact, many men die of old age, without ever knowing they had prostate cancer – it is only when an autopsy is done that doctors know it was there. Several studies have indicated that perhaps about 80% of all men in their eighties had prostate cancer when they died, but nobody knew, not even the doctor.

Experts say that prostate cancer starts with tiny alterations in the shape and size of the prostate gland cells – Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN).

Doctors say that nearly 50% of all 50-year-old men have PIN. The cells are still in place – they do not seem to have moved elsewhere – but the changes can be seen under a microscope. Cancer cells would have moved into other parts of the prostate. Doctors describe these prostate gland cell changes as low-grade or high-grade; high grade is abnormal while low-grade is more-or-less normal.

Any patient who was found to have high-grade PIN after a prostate biopsy is at a significantly greater risk of having cancer cells in his prostate. Because of this, doctors will monitor him carefully and possibly carry out another biopsy later on.

 

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SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PROSTATE CANCER

During the early stages of prostate cancer there are usually no symptoms. Most men at this stage find out they have prostate cancer after a routine check up or blood test.

When symptoms do exist, they are usually one or more of the following:

  • The patient urinates more often
  • The patient gets up at night more often to urinate
  • He may find it hard to start urinating
  • He may find it hard to keep urinating once he has started
  • There may be blood in the urine
  • Urination might be painful
  • Ejaculation may be painful (less common)
  • Achieving or maintaining an erection may be difficult (less common).

 

PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENTS

The following treatments are separated into early stage and advanced stage prostate cancers.

 

EARLY STAGE PROSTATE CANCER

If the cancer is small and contained – localized – it is usually managed by one of the following treatments:

Watchful waiting – not immediate treatment is carried out. PSA blood levels are regularly monitored.

Radical prostatectomy – the prostate is surgically removed.

Brachytherapy – radioactive seeds are implanted into the prostate.

Conformal radiotherapy – the radiation beams are shaped so that the region where they overlap is as close to the same shape as the organ or region that requires treatment, thus minimizing healthy tissue exposure to radiation.

Intensity modulated radiotherapy – beams with variable intensity are used. An advanced form of conformal radiotherapy usually delivered by a computer-controlled linear accelerator.

Treatment recommendations really depend on individual cases. In general, if there is a good prognosis and the cancer is in its early stages, all options can be considered. However, they all have their advantages and disadvantages. The patient should discuss available options thoroughly with his doctor.

ANDROGENS EFFECT ON PROSTATE:

The long-term effects of supraphysiologic doses of androgens on the risk of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and lower urinary tract symptoms are unknown.

There is no strong evidence by studies and research which proves that Androgens may cause Cancer of Prostate gland.

 

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By Medifit Education

www.themedifit.in

 

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