|1. TYPE OF DRUG – PARACETAMOL|
|Paracetamol is a painkilling (analgesic) medicine.
|2. INDICATIONS (USE) – PARACETAMOL|
|Paracetamol is a common painkiller. Paracetamol relieves pain. It also reduces fever. Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen or APAP, is a medication used to treat pain and fever. It is typically used for mild to moderate pain. Evidence of benefit in fever is poor. It is often sold in combination with other ingredients such as in many cold medications. In combination with opioid pain medication, paracetamol is used for more severe pain such as cancer pain and after surgery. It is typically used either by mouth or rectally but is also available intravenously. Effects last between two and four hours.
|3. MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA) – PARACETAMOL|
|It blocks prostaglandin synthesis by cyclo-oxygenase pathway.inhibits thromboxane A2 formation in platelets reducing platelet aggregation.
|4. ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION – PARACETAMOL|
|Oral & Injectable.
|5. ONSET OF EFFECT OR ACTION – PARACETAMOL|
|6. DOSAGE (DOSING INFORMATION) – PARACETAMOL|
|Recommended doses of paracetamol are:
For adults: 500 mg-1 g every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of 4 g daily.
For children aged 12-16 years: 480-750 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 10-12 years: 480-500 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
|7. HALF LIFE (DURATION OF ACTION) – PARACETAMOL|
|Upto 6 hours. Paracetamol is extensively metabolized and the plasma half-life is 1.5-2.5 hours.
|8. ADVERSE EFFECTS OR SIDE EFFECTS – PARACETAMOL|
|A rash or swelling – this could be a sign of an allergic reaction.
hypotension (low blood pressure) when given in hospital by infusion (a continuous drip of medicine into a vein in your arm)
liver and kidney damage, when taken at higher-than-recommended doses
|9. CONTRAINDICATIONS – PARACETAMOL|
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS – PARACETAMOL|
|Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions.
|11. EXCRETION – PARACETAMOL|
|Approximately 80% of acetaminophen is excreted in the urine after conjugation and about 3% is excreted unchanged.