Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)
ORAL POLIO VACCINE
|1. TYPE OF DRUG –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|The action of oral polio vaccine (OPV) is two-pronged. OPV produces antibodies in the blood (‘humoral’ or serum immunity) to all three types of poliovirus, and in the event of infection, this protects the individual against polio paralysis by preventing the spread of poliovirus to the nervous system.
|2. INDICATIONS (USE) –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|Prevention of poliomyelitis. Infants as young as 6 to 12 wk and all unimmunized children and adolescents up to 18 yr of age are usual candidates for routine OPV prophylaxis. OPV is also recommended for control of epidemic poliomyelitis. If less than 4 wk remain before protection is needed, single dose of OPV is recommended, with remaining vaccine doses given later if person remains at increased risk. Immunization with IPV may be indicated for unimmunized parents and those in other special situations in which protection may be needed. In household with immunocompromised member or other close contacts or in household with unimmunized adult, use only IPV for all those requiring poliovirus immunization.
|3. MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA) –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|Oral polio vaccine is used for active immunization against poliomyelitis.
|4. ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|Oral Polio Vaccine administered orally.
|5. ONSET OF EFFECT OR ACTION –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|6. DOSAGE (DOSING INFORMATION) –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|2-3 drops oral by : 1st dose at birth;
2nd dose at 6 week;
3rd dose at 10 week;
4th dose at 14 week; and
5th dose at 18 months.
|7. HALF LIFE (DURATION OF ACTION) –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|The half life of polio vaccine virus is 48 to 72 hours
|8. ADVERSE EFFECTS OR SIDE EFFECTS –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|9. CONTRAINDICATIONS –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|The poliovirus vaccine should be used with caution in patients with a history of neomycin hypersensitivity or streptomycin hypersensitivity because these agents may be used in the preparation of OPV. A history of delayed-type allergic reactions is not an absolute contraindication to OPV administration.
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|Concomitant administration of immunosuppressives (corticosteroids, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, radiation therapy) can decrease the immunological response to OPV and potentiate viral replication. When administered within 1 month of other live virus vaccines (such as MMR), OPV may not induce an adequate immune response. Although specific studies of the effect of simultaneous vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (oral poliovirus vaccine) and other vaccines are not always available, in most cases, simultaneous vaccination does not pose a problem. Whenever possible, however, OPV and other live virus vaccines should be administered at least 1 month apart. The OPV can be administered concurrently with the following preparations: hepatitis B vaccines; immune globulin; D.P. influenza vaccine (split or whole); polysaccharide vaccines (Haemophilus b, meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccines); and inactivated vaccines. However, concurrent administration of OPV with cholera vaccine, typhoid vaccine, or plague vaccine may be associated with significant adverse reactions and should be avoided.
|11. EXCRETION –ORAL POLIO VACCINE|
|Vaccine viruses are excreted in the stool of the vaccinated person for up to 6 weeks.