Ivermectin

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IVERMECTIN

Ivermectin  1

1.       TYPE OF DRUG – IVERMECTIN
Ivermectin  is an anthelmintic.

 

2.       INDICATIONS (USE) – IVERMECTIN
This medication is an anthelmintic, prescribed for certain parasitic roundworm infections such as Strongyloidiasis and Onchocerciasis.  It kills the worms in the intestines.

 

3.       MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA) – IVERMECTIN
Ivermectin binds selectively and with high affinity to glutamate-gated chloride ion channels in invertebrate muscle and nerve cells of the microfilaria. This binding causes an increase in the permeability of the cell membrane to chloride ions and results in hyperpolarization of the cell, leading to paralysis and death of the parasite. Ivermectin also is believed to act as an agonist of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), thereby disrupting GABA-mediated central nervous system (CNS) neurosynaptic transmission. Ivermectin may also impair normal intrauterine development of O. volvulus microfilariae and may inhibit their release from the uteri of gravid female worms.

 

4.       ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION – IVERMECTIN
Cream, Lotion, Tablet

 

5.       ONSET OF EFFECT OR ACTION – IVERMECTIN
6.      DOSAGE (DOSING INFORMATION)- IVERMECTIN
Oral

Onchocerciasis

Adult ≥15kg: 150 mcg/kg as a single dose for every 6- 12 months until asymptomatic;

Child > 5 years & ≥15kg: 150mcg/kg as a single dose every 6- 12 months until asymptomatic.

 

Strongyloidiasis

Adult ≥15kg: 200 mcg/kg once daily for 1-2 days. For immunocompromised patients: May need to repeat every 2-4 weeks.

Child: > 15kg: 200 mcg/kg as a single dose or daily on two consecutive days. For immunocompromised patients: May need to repeat dose every 2-4 weeks.

 

7.       HALF LIFE (DURATION OF ACTION) – IVERMECTIN
16 hours (also reported at 22-28 hours)

 

8.       ADVERSE EFFECTS OR SIDE EFFECTS – IVERMECTIN
Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, pruritus, utricaria, rash, arthralgia, fever, myalgia, asthenia, postural hypotension, tachycardia, oedema, lymphadenopathy, sore throat, cough, heahache, somnolence, transient eosinophilia, raised liver enzyme values.

 

9.       CONTRAINDICATIONS – IVERMECTIN
Hypersensitivity. Pregnancy & lactation. Children < 15kg body weight.

 

10.   DRUG INTERACTIONS – IVERMECTIN
Bioavailability may be increased by alcohol, levamisole

 

11.      EXCRETION – IVERMECTIN
Ivermectin is metabolized in the liver, and ivermectin and/or its metabolites are excreted almost exclusively in the feces over an estimated 12 days, with less than 1% of the administered dose excreted in the urine.

 

Ivermectin 2

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