Insulin is released by the pancreas and can be either your best friend or worst foe. It is great when it promotes muscle building and it sucks when it promotes fat storage. The role of insulin in the body is to lower blood sugar levels when they get too high. When you eat any sort of food it is broken down into its simplest form glucose (sugar) and released into your bloodstream. This release of sugar causes your blood sugar to rise above normal levels. Your pancreas then releases Insulin. Insulin lowers blood sugar levels by putting the glucose into muscle and liver cells.
Insulin is actually a functional protein very similar to growth hormone. Like all other proteins, it’s a chain of amino acids, but the way insulin’s chains are folded makes it act as a signalling mechanism. Here’s how it works: When you eat carbs and/or protein, insulin is produced by and released from the pancreas, enters the bloodstream and travels to various tissues, including muscle. Muscle fibers (or cells) are lined with insulin receptors, which resemble a docking station. Once an insulin molecule “docks” onto the receptor, it signals the muscle cell to open “gates” that allow glucose, amino acids and creatine to enter the muscle.
It also instigates biochemical reactions in the muscle that increase protein synthesis the building of muscle tissue from the amino acids that are entering the cells. But wait, there’s more: Insulin also reduces muscle breakdown, further promoting growth.
Insulin carries amino acids into the muscles promoting protein synthesis (muscle building) and preventing protein breakdown (muscle loss). Your muscles and liver has a limited storage capacity and once they reach capacity insulin has to carry the remaining glucose somewhere else.
High insulin levels can hurt you in another way. When insulin spikes, it clears out the majority of the glucose in the blood by pushing it into muscle and fat cells. This causes blood glucose levels to drop severely, a condition known as hypoglycemia. As a result your energy levels crash, which is bad news because your hunger soars, causing you to overeat, especially carbs. In addition to increasing nutrient uptake, hypertrophy and body fat, insulin have other lesser-known functions. It relaxes the muscles of the blood vessels, which causes them to dilate, allowing more blood to reach the muscles. This makes it easier for nutrients like glucose and amino acids to get to the muscles, which is one reason bodybuilders pound simple carbs on contest day.
Not only does the corresponding insulin spike drive carbs into the muscles to keep them full, but it also boosts vascularity.
In addition, insulin may play a role in aging. Research has discovered that when insulin is maintained at a low level in animals, they live about 50% longer. Although the precise mechanism for this anti-aging effect is undetermined, it’s believed that the insulin signaling in cells makes them less healthy over time, decreasing overall longevity. Therefore, keeping insulin levels low lessens the need for insulin to signal within cells, perhaps maintaining healthier cells for a longer life.
10IU is enough to make you grow. In general Dosages used are usually 1 IU per 20 pounds of lean bodyweight. So a 220lb bodybuilder with 9% body-fat would use 10iu of insulin (aprox200lb lean mass/20 = 10iu). But even experienced insulin users shouldn’t use max dosage at the beginning of an insulin cycle. First-time users should start at a low dosage and gradually work up. For example, first begin with 2 IU and then increase the dosage by 1 IU every consecutive workout until you reach your calculated dose or determine a maximum personal dose(some people are more sensitive to insulin sides like hypoglycemia). This will allow the athlete to determine a dosage he can safely use. Insulin dosages can vary significantly among athletes and are dependent upon insulin sensitivity and the use of other drugs. Athletes using growth hormone and thyroid might have higher insulin requirements.
The best sites for insulin injection are in the subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen (avoid the area close to bellybutton) .Usually, you should not inject within 1 inch of the same site within 1 month. The arms and legs can also be used, but insulin uptake from these sites is less uniform. Insulin should be injected subcutaneously only with a U-100 insulin syringe.
Take insulin after a workout, never before or when not working out, because before a work out you could crash and die during the workout and when you’re not working out it makes you fat.
You should immediately take a carbohydrate AND protein drinks after taking you’re insulin. Be high on protein diet after taking insulin. Keep glucose powder with you ready, as insulin can work much later and can cause hypoglycaemia.
Insulin inhalers and tablets are much safer than injections at low dose. Till mid-2014, they are not available in market for use.
INSULIN DESCRIPTION/ EXPLANATION
Medifit Education describes how insulin can be used for Muscle building.
Insulin helps athletes in two ways. In bodybuilders, it works alongside anabolic steroids such as testosterone or human growth hormone to consolidate muscle tissue. Steroids spawn new muscle, and insulin prevents it from being broken down.
Insulin also bolsters stamina in middle-distance runners and other track performers by enabling them to load their muscles with glycogen “fuel” before and between events. To do this, athletes would need to take insulin and glucose simultaneously for a couple of hours, infusing them using a technique called a hyperinsulinaemic clamp.
In the long term, taking anabolic steroids for non-medical uses can damage reproductive health. But an overdose of insulin can quickly trigger a fatal coma by clearing so much sugar from the blood that the brain is starved of energy and oxygen.
More and more athletes may be taking insulin to boost their performance illegally, *New Scientist* has learned.
Various Insulin’s available are
– Fastest Acting Insulin
– Short Duration Of Effect
– Intermediate Length Insulin
– Long acting insulin
Many people don’t know that which kind of Insulin should be used for Body building. Medifit Education
advices to use only Fastest acting insulin, as the risk of hypoglycemia and coma are very less as compared with other types of Insulin available.
Insulin was banned by the International Olympic Committee in 1998. But the ban doesn’t apply to diabetic athletes, whose health depends on insulin.
Diabetes UK, which represents the country’s diabetics, acknowledges that there might be a temptation for some diabetics to supply insulin to athletes who are friends. But it sees no point advising diabetics not to do this. “We’ve never warned people not to sell on their insulin because we feel there’s little we can do if people want to do that.
Meanwhile, the only possible solution in the locker room is to catch people red-handed with the drugs. “Only by using police tactics such as searching and detaining could you stop it, but that’s a controversial area,” says
To examine the effects of anabolic steroid use on glucose homeostasis, we determined oral glucose tolerance and serum insulin response to glucose in 15 male powerlifters, 6 obese men, and 10 sedentary nonobese men. Eight of the powerlifters had self-administered large doses (200 mg/day) of anabolic steroids for periods of up to 7 yr, whereas 7 had never used anabolic steroids. Powerlifters who ingested anabolic steroids had diminished glucose tolerance compared to the nonsteroid-using group, despite having substantially higher postglucose serum insulin concentrations. Postglucose insulin responses were also higher in steroid users than in the sedentary nonobese and sedentary obese reference groups. These results indicate that powerlifters who ingest anabolic steroids have diminished glucose tolerance, which is likely to be secondary to insulin resistance.
Insulin by itself, is not aneffective anabolic. If it were, diabetics would be huge. Insulin, in combination with anabolic steroids and resistance exercise, may trigger maturation of satellite cells (small, more or less useless cells that are held in reserve, which do not contribute to muscular strength) into mature muscle cells. The advanced steroid user may have plateaued in that respect, and adding insulin can give new gains.
Anyone is not clear, whether short or long acting is more effective for building muscle. They seem to be about equally effective. A problem with long acting appears if it would continue acting while asleep: one might die if insufficient carbohydrates had been taken. Medifit Education strictly advices to avoid long acting insulin.
Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).
The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy.
After you eat, cells in your pancreas are signalled to release insulin into the bloodstream.
If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin.
If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time.
Insulin permits cells to use glucose for energy. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin.
The failure to make insulin or to respond to it constitutes diabetes mellitus. Insulin is made specifically by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. If the beta cells degenerate so the body cannot make enough insulin on its own, type I diabetes results. A person with this type of diabetes must inject exogenous insulin (insulin from sources outside the body).
In type II diabetes, the beta cells produce insulin, but cells throughout the body do not respond normally to it. Nevertheless, insulin also may be used in type II diabetes to help overcome the resistance of cells to insulin.
By reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood, insulin is thought to prevent or reduce the long-term complications of diabetes, including damage to the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
HISTORY OF INSULIN
In 1921, Frederick Grant Banting and Charles H. Best discovered insulin while they were working in the laboratory of John J.R. Macleod at the University of Toronto. Banting and Best extracted material from the pancreas of dogs. They first used this material to keep diabetic dogs alive and in 1922 they used it successfully on a 14-year-old boy with diabetes. In 1923, James B. Collip, a biochemist, discovered that purifying the extract prevented many of the side effects.
In 1923, Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. Best and Collip were overlooked but Banting and Macleod shared the prize money with them. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved insulin in 1939.
Insulin was the first hormone to be synthesized completely in the laboratory, a feat accomplished in 1966 by the American worker Michael Katsoyannis and scientists in China. The first recombinant human insulin was approved by the FDA in 1982.
INSULIN TREATMENT FOR DIABETES
People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia.
People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process sugar and to prevent long-term complications from this disease. Persons with type 2 diabetes may first be treated with oral medications, along with diet and exercise. Since type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, the longer someone has it, the more likely they will require insulin to maintain blood sugar levels.
Various types of insulin are used to treat diabetes and include:
It starts working approximately 15 minutes after injection and peaks at approximately 1 hour but continues to work for two to four hours. This is usually taken before a meal and in addition to a long-acting insulin.
It starts working approximately 30 minutes after injection and peaks at approximately 2 to 3 hours but will continue to work for three to six hours. It is usually given before a meal and in addition to a long-acting insulin.
It starts working approximately 2 to 4 hours after injection and peaks approximately 4 to 12 hours later and continues to work for 12-18 hours. It is usually taken twice a day and in addition to a rapid- or short-acting insulin.
It starts working after several hours after injection and works for approximately 24 hours. If necessary, it is often used in combination with rapid- or short-acting insulin.
Premixed insulin can be helpful for people who have trouble drawing up insulin out of two bottles and reading the correct directions and dosages. It is also useful for those who have poor eyesight or dexterity and is convenient for people whose diabetes has been stabilized on this combination.
Insulin can be given by a syringe, injection pen, or an insulin pump that delivers a continuous flow of insulin.
Your doctor will work with you to figure out which type of insulin is best for you depending on whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your blood sugar levels, and your lifestyle.
There are different types of insulin depending on how quickly they work, when they peak, and how long they last.
Inside the pancreas, beta cells make the hormone insulin. With each meal, beta cells release insulin to help the body use or store the blood glucose it gets from food.
In people with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas no longer makes insulin. The beta cells have been destroyed and they need insulin shots to use glucose from meals.
People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their bodies don’t respond well to it. Some people with type 2 diabetes need diabetes pills or insulin shots to help their bodies use glucose for energy.
Insulin cannot be taken as a pill because it would be broken down during digestion just like the protein in food. It must be injected into the fat under your skin for it to get into your blood. In some rare cases insulin can lead to an allergic reaction at the injection site. Talk to your doctor if you believe you may be experiencing a reaction.
Characteristics of Insulin
Insulin has 3 characteristics:
Onset is the length of time before insulin reaches the bloodstream and begins lowering blood glucose.
Peaktime is the time during which insulin is at maximum strength in terms of lowering blood glucose.
Duration is how long insulin continues to lower blood glucose.
All insulins come dissolved or suspended in liquids. The standard and most commonly used strength in the United States today is U-100, which means it has 100 units of insulin per milliliter of fluid, though U-500 insulin is available for patients who are extremely insulin resistant.
U-40, which has 40 units of insulin per milliliter of fluid, has generally been phased out around the world, but it is possible that it could still be found in some places (and U-40 insulin is still used in veterinary care).
Types of Insulin: Currently, insulin is derived from recombinant (human) sources. Regular (rapid onset, short-acting) and NPH (slower onset, longer duration) human insulin are the most commonly-used preparations. An ultrarapid-acting insulin analog, insulin lispro injection (Humalog(r)) is a chemically-modified, natural insulin. It was approved by the FDA in June, 1996.
Insulin is administered by injection via the subcutaneous (under the skin) route. Regular insulin acts within 30 minutes, and its effects last 6 to 8 hours. The maximal effect occurs 1 to 3 hours following the injection.