|1. TYPE OF DRUG – DICLOFENAC|
|Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
|2. INDICATIONS (USE) – DICLOFENAC|
|This medicine works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain and inflammation. This medicine is also used to treat ankylosing spondylitis, which is a type of arthritis that affects the joints in the spine, and other painful conditions such as menstrual cramps.
|3. MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA) – DICLOFENAC|
|The primary mechanism responsible for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic action is thought to be inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). It also appears to exhibit bacteriostatic activity by inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis. Diclofenac may also be a unique member of the NSAIDs. Some evidence indicates it inhibits the lipoxygenase pathways, thus reducing formation of the leukotrienes (also pro-inflammatory autacoids). It also may inhibit phospholipase A2 as part of its mechanism of action. These additional actions may explain its high potency – it is the most potent NSAID on a broad basis.
|4. ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION – DICLOFENAC|
|Oral & Injectable.
|5. ONSET OF EFFECT OR ACTION – DICLOFENAC|
|1 hour.full anti-inflammatory effects may take 2 weeks.
|6. DOSAGE (DOSING INFORMATION) – DICLOFENAC|
|Diclofenac comes in several brands with different formulations, so depending on the brand and the condition you are treating, the recommended dose may range from 50 milligrams (mg) to 100 mg in eight- to 12-hour intervals.
You should take no more than 225 mg in a day of the regular-release form. Doses of the extended-release form should not exceed 200 mg in a day.
Always take diclofenac with at least 8 ounces of water. Diclofenac can be very hard on the stomach, so for best results, try taking it with food or milk.
One or two ampoules (75 to 150 mg) each day for one or two days.
Your doctor may give you a dose that is lower than the usual adult dose if you are elderly.
Not suitable for children.
|7. HALF LIFE (DURATION OF ACTION) – DICLOFENAC|
|12 hours-24 hours.
|8. ADVERSE EFFECTS OR SIDE EFFECTS – DICLOFENAC|
The most commonly reported side effects of diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren-XR) are dyspepsia, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, headache, dizziness, rash, and drowsiness. More serious (and rarer) reactions include stroke, high blood pressure, GI bleed, and heart attack.
|9. CONTRAINDICATIONS – DICLOFENAC|
|Symptoms following acute NSAID overdoses are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose.
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS – DICLOFENAC|
|Oralanticoagulants,corticosteroids,other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory.drugs,aspirin: risk of peptic unclr bleeding.indigestion remedies:disrupt the enteric coatremedies:disrupt the enteric coating:lithium,digoxin and methotrexate:blood levels of these drugs.
|11. EXCRETION – DICLOFENAC|
|Diclofenac is eliminated through metabolism and subsequent urinary and biliary excretion of the glucuronide and the sulfate conjugates of the metabolites. Little or no free unchanged diclofenac is excreted in the urine. Approximately 65% of the dose is excreted in the urine and approximately 35% in the bile as conjugates of unchanged diclofenac plus metabolites. Because renal elimination is not a significant pathway of elimination for unchanged diclofenac, dosing adjustment in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction is not necessary. The terminal half-life of unchanged diclofenac is approximately 2 hours.