|1. TYPE OF DRUG- Ciprofloxacin|
|Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
|2. INDICATIONS (USE)- Ciprofloxacin|
|For the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible organisms: urinary tract infections, acute uncomplicated cystitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, lower respiratory tract infections, acute sinusitis, skin and skin structure infections, bone and joint infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole), infectious diarrhea, typhoid fever (enteric fever), uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea, and inhalational anthrax (post-exposure).
|3. MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA)- Ciprofloxacin|
|The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, strand supercoiling repair, and recombination.
|4. ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION- Ciprofloxacin|
|5. ONSET OF EFFECT OR ACTION- Ciprofloxacin|
|6. DOSAGE (DOSING INFORMATION)- Ciprofloxacin|
|Ciprofloxacin comes in regular and extended-release tablets and as a liquid.
Take regular tablets or the liquid twice a day (morning and evening) at about the same time each day, and take extended-release tablets once a day.
Swallow all tablets whole. Don’t crush, split, or chew them.
Regular tablets come in 250, 500, and 750 milligrams (mg).
Some typical doses for common infections using regular tablets include:
Uncomplicated gonorrhea infection: 250 mg, single dose
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection: 250 mg every 12 hours for three days
Bacterial diarrhea: 500 mg every 12 hours for five to seven days
Acute sinusitis: 500 mg every 12 hours for 10 days
Severe pneumonia: 750 mg every 12 hours for seven to 14 days
Chronic bacterial prostatitis: 500 mg every 12 hours for 28 days
Moderate bone or joint infection: 500 mg every 12 hours for four to six weeks.
|7. HALF LIFE (DURATION OF ACTION)- Ciprofloxacin|
|8. ADVERSE EFFECTS OR SIDE EFFECTS – Ciprofloxacin|
|Common side effects of Cipro include diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, stomach upset, abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, blurred vision, nervousness, anxiety, agitation, sleep problems (insomnia or nightmares), and rash.
|9. CONTRAINDICATIONS – Ciprofloxacin|
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS – Ciprofloxacin|
|When Ciprofloxacin Tablet is given concomitantly with food, there is a delay in the
absorption of the drug, resulting in peak concentrations that occur closer to 2 hours after dosing rather than 1 hour whereas there is no delay observed when Ciprofloxacin Suspension is given with food. The overall absorption of Ciprofloxacin Tablet or Ciprofloxacin Suspension, however, is not substantially affected. The
pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin given as the suspension are also not affected by food. Concurrent
administration of antacids containing magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide may reduce the
bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by as much as 90%.
The serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were not altered when these two drugs
were given concomitantly.
Concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin with theophylline decreases the clearance of theophylline
resulting in elevated serum theophylline levels and increased risk of a patient developing CNS or other
adverse reactions. Ciprofloxacin also decreases caffeine clearance and inhibits the formation of
paraxanthine after caffeine administration.
|11. EXCRETION- Ciprofloxacin|
|Approximately 40 to 50% of an orally administered dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug.