|1. TYPE OF DRUG – CHLOROQUINE|
|Chloroquine is an aminoquinoline.
|2. INDICATIONS (USE) – CHLOROQUINE|
|Chloroquine is used for malarial prophylaxis (as a suppressive) and in managing acute attacks of malaria. For rheumatoid arthritis.
|3. MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA) – CHLOROQUINE|
|The mechanism of plasmodicidal action of chloroquine is not completely certain. Like other quinoline derivatives, it is thought to inhibit heme polymerase activity. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites. nside red blood cells, the malarial parasite must degrade hemoglobin to acquire essential amino acids, which the parasite requires to construct its own protein and for energy metabolism. Digestion is carried out in a vacuole of the parasite cell. During this process, the parasite produces the toxic and soluble molecule heme. The heme moiety consists of a porphyrin ring called Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX (FP).
|4. ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION – CHLOROQUINE|
|5. ONSET OF EFFECT OR ACTION- CHLOROQUINE|
|Within 2-3 days. In rheumatoid arthritis, full effect may not be felt for upto 6 months.
|6. DOSAGE (DOSING INFORMATION) – CHLOROQUINE|
|Adult: As base: Initially, 600 mg followed by 300 mg 6-8 hours later on day 1. On days 2 and 3, single doses of 300 mg/day.Child: Initially, 10 mg base/kg (max 600 mg base) followed by 5 mg base/kg (max 300 mg base) after 6 hours. Single doses of 5 mg base/kg on days 2 and 3.
|7. HALF LIFE (DURATION OF ACTION) – CHLOROQUINE|
|8. ADVERSE EFFECTS OR SIDE EFFECTS – CHLOROQUINE|
|Retinopathy, hair loss, photosensitivity, tinnitus, myopathy (long-term therapy). Psychosis, seizures, leucopenia and rarely aplastic anaemia, hepatitis, GI upsets, dizziness, hypokalaemia, headache, pruritus, urticaria, difficulty in visual accommodation. Potentially Fatal: Cardiac and respiratory arrest, CV collapse, convulsions, coma.
|9. CONTRAINDICATIONS – CHLOROQUINE|
|Chloroquine is contraindicated in hypersensitivity, Chloroquine resistant falciparum infection, G6PD deficiency, renal and hepatic impairment, epilepsy and in psoriasis.
|10. DRUG INTERACTIONS – CHLOROQUINE|
|Antacids and kaolin: Antacids and kaolin can reduce the absorption of Chloroquine; an interval of at least 4 hours between intake of these agents and Chloroquine should be observed.
|11. EXCRETION- CHLOROQUINE|
|Excretion of chloroquine is quite slow, but is increased by acidification of the urine.