Cefixime

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 Cefixime

Cefixime 1

1.       TYPE OF DRUG- Cefixime
Cefixime is an antibiotic.

 

2.       INDICATIONS (USE)- Cefixime
For use in the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms: (1) uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, (2) otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Moraxella catarrhalis (most of which are beta-lactamase positive), and S. pyogenes, (3) pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes, (4) acute bronchitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), and (5) uncomplicated gonorrhea (cervical/urethral) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (penicillinase- and non-penicillinase-producing strains).

 

3.       MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA)- Cefixime
Like all beta-lactam antibiotics, cefixime binds to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, causing the inhibition of the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cefixime interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

 

4.       ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION- Cefixime
Oral

 

5.       ONSET OF EFFECT OR ACTION- Cefixime
1 hour.

 

6.     DOSAGE (DOSING INFORMATION)- Cefixime
Oral

Susceptible infections

Adult: 200-400 mg/day as a single dose or in 2 divided doses.

Child: 8 mg/kg/day as a single dose or in 2 divided doses; <6 months: Not recommended. Treatment should be continued for 48 hours after disappearance of symptoms.

Renal impairment:     Dose reduction is necessary.

CrCl (ml/min)            Dosage Recommendation

<20                          Max: 200 mg daily.

Oral

Uncomplicated gonorrhoea

Adult: 400 mg as a single dose.

Renal impairment: Dose reduction is necessary.

CrCl (ml/min)           Dosage Recommendation

<20                         Max: 200 mg daily.

 

7.       HALF LIFE (DURATION OF ACTION)- Cefixime
3-4 hours (may range up to 9 hours). In severe renal impairment (5 to 20 mL/min creatinine clearance), the half-life increased to an average of 11.5 hours.

 

8.       ADVERSE EFFECTS OR SIDE EFFECTS – Cefixime
  • mild nausea, stomach pain, constipation, loss of appetite
  • anxiety, drowsiness
  • increased night-time urination
  • headache
  • runny nose, sore throat, cough or.
  • vaginal itching or discharge.

 

9.       CONTRAINDICATIONS – Cefixime
Hypersensitivity to cephalosporin

 

10.   DRUG INTERACTIONS – Cefixime
Increased concentrations with probenecid.

Potentially Fatal: May increase prothrombin time with anticoagulants.

 

11.   EXCRETION- Cefixime
20% of an oral dose excreted via urine unchanged; 60% nonrenal elimination; some is excreted via the faeces from the bile. Substantially removed by dialysis.

 

Cefixime 2

 

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