ANTILEPROTICS – INTRODUCTION
Antileprotics drugs used to treat Leprosy.
Leprosy is a contagious disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, and nerves, causing discoloration and lumps on the skin and, in severe cases, disfigurement and deformities. Leprosy is now mainly confined to tropical Africa and Asia.
ANTILEPROTICS – INDICATION
Anti leprotics drugs used to treat the medical condition called Leprosy.
Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects any organ like skin, eyes, mucosa, periphery nerves or any other organ. It can cause irriversible disfigurement of the extremities and nerve damage.
The drugs used in MDT are a combination of the following: rifampicin, clofazimine and dapsone for MB leprosy patients and rifampicin and dapsone for PB leprosy patients. Among these, rifampicin is the most important antileprosy drug and therefore is included in the treatment of both types of leprosy.
ANTILEPROTICS – INFORMATION
Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae that causes damage to the skin and the peripheral nervous system. The disease develops slowly (from six months to 40 years!) and results in skin lesions and deformities, most often affecting the cooler places on the body (for example, eyes, nose, earlobes, hands, feet, and testicles).Worldwide, two to three million people are estimated to be permanently disabled because of leprosy. India has the greatest number of cases, with Brazil second and Burma third. In 1999, the world incidence of Hansen’s disease was estimated to be 640,000. In 2000, 738,284 cases were identified. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) listed 91 countries in which Hansen’s disease is endemic. India, Burma, and Nepal contained 70% of cases. India reports over 50% of the world’s leprosy cases. In 2002, 763,917 new cases were detected worldwide, and in that year the WHO listed Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Nepal as having 90% of Hansen’s disease cases. So there is need to treat this disease. Current recommendations for the treatment of leprosy suggest multidrug regimens rather than monotherapy because such a regimen has proven to be more effective, delays the emergence of resistance, prevents relapse, and shortens the duration of therapy. Established agents used in the treatment of leprosy are dapsone, clofazimine, and rifampin. INTRODUCTION Leprae, a rod-shaped bacillus that is an obligate intracellular (only grows inside of certain human and animal cells) bacterium. M. leprae is termed an “acid fast” bacterium because of its chemical characteristics. Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, 1 was identified by G. H. A. Hansen in 1873. The different clinical presentations of the disease are determined by the quality of the host immune response. When special stains are used for microscopic analysis, it stains red on a blue background due to mycolic acid content in its cell walls. The Ziel-Nielsen stain is an example of the special staining techniques used to view the acid-fast organisms under the microscope. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Host defenses are crucial in determining the patient’s response to the disease, the clinical presentation, and the bacillary load. These factors also influence the length of therapy and the risk of adverse reactions to medication. M. leprae cannot be grown on routine laboratory culture media, so drug sensitivity testing in vitro is not possible. Growth and drug susceptibility testing are done by injecting into animal models. One description of a clinical picture that results from tuberculoid leprosy is characterized by intact cell-mediated immunity, a positive lepromin skin reaction, granuloma formation, and a relative paucity of bacilli. At the other extreme, lepromatous leprosy is characterized by depressed cell-mediated immunity, numerous bacilli within the tissues, no granulomas, and a negative skin test for lepromin. Within these two extremes are the patients with an intermediate or borderline form of leprosy who show a variable lepromin reaction and few bacilli; they may progress to either tuberculoid or lepromatous leprosy.
Signs and symptoms
Leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions (light or dark patches) are the primary external sign. If untreated, leprosy can progress and cause permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of secondary infections; these occur as a result of the body’s defenses being compromised by the primary disease. Secondary infections, in turn, can result in tissue loss causing fingers and toes to become shortened and deformed, as cartilage is absorbed into the body.