81. Static Magnetic Fields Effects

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81. Static Magnetic Fields Effects

 

 

CATEGORY:Alternative Medicines 300 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 81

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Syllabus

Contents

Part I Introductory and Background Information
1 Parameters of Magnetic Fields and Their Differential
Biological Effects…………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.1.1 Static Magnetic Field vs. Dynamic Magnetic Field ………….. 3
1.1.2 Different Magnetic Field Intensities: Weak, Moderate,
High and Ultra-high Magnetic Field……………………………….. 5
1.1.3 Homogeneous vs. Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field…………… 10
1.1.4 Exposure Time …………………………………………………………….. 15
1.1.5 Magnetic Poles and Different Field Directions ………………… 16
1.1.6 Factors Contributing to the Lack of Consistencies
in Bioeffects Studies of Magnetic Fields…………………………. 19
1.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………….. 22
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
2 Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) on Human Bodies …………………………… 27
2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 27
2.2 Earth Magnetic Field ………………………………………………………………. 29
2.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging…………………………………………………… 32
2.4 Magnetic Therapy Using SMFs………………………………………………… 35
2.5 Magnetobiology and Biomagnetism………………………………………….. 40
2.6 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………….. 43
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

Part II Scientific Basis for Static Magnetic Field (SMF) Effects
on Biological Systems, from Molecule,
Cell to WHOLE Organism Level
3 Molecular Mechanisms for Electromagnetic Field Biosensing…………. 51
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 51
3.2 Magnetism, Basic Definitions…………………………………………………… 52
3.2.1 Ferromagnetism, Paramagnetism, and Diamagnetism ………. 52
3.2.2 Field Types and Strengths……………………………………………… 53
3.3 Overview of Magnetoreception in Various Organisms…………………. 55
3.3.1 Bacteria ………………………………………………………………………. 55
3.3.2 Invertebrates………………………………………………………………… 56
3.3.3 Vertebrates ………………………………………………………………….. 58
3.4 Types of Biological Magnetoreceptors………………………………………. 60
3.4.1 Magnetite ……………………………………………………………………. 61
3.4.2 Chemical Magnetosensing…………………………………………….. 62
3.4.3 Electromagnetic Induction…………………………………………….. 65
3.5 Mechanisms for SMF Effects on Human Biology……………………….. 66
3.5.1 “Established” Biosensors/Magnetoreceptors……………………. 67
3.5.2 “Other” Human Biosensors …………………………………………… 69
3.6 Concluding Comments ……………………………………………………………. 75
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
4 Impact of Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) on Cells…………………………… 81
4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 81
4.2 Parameters That Influence the Cellular Effects of SMFs………………. 83
4.2.1 Magnetic Field Intensity-Dependent Cellular
Effects of SMFs…………………………………………………………… 84
4.2.2 Cell Type-Dependent Cellular Effects of SMFs……………….. 85
4.2.3 Cell Density-Dependent Cellular Effects of SMFs……………. 88
4.2.4 Cell Status Influences the Cellular Effects of SMFs………….. 90
4.3 Cellular Effects of SMFs …………………………………………………………. 93
4.3.1 Cell Orientation …………………………………………………………… 93
4.3.2 Cell Proliferation/Growth ……………………………………………… 97
4.3.3 Microtubule and Cell Division……………………………………….. 99
4.3.4 Actin ………………………………………………………………………….. 103
4.3.5 Cell Viability……………………………………………………………….. 104
4.3.6 Cell Attachment/Adhesion…………………………………………….. 106
4.3.7 Cell Morphology………………………………………………………….. 107
4.3.8 Cell Migration……………………………………………………………… 108
4.3.9 Cell Membrane ……………………………………………………………. 109
4.3.10 Cell Cycle …………………………………………………………………… 110
4.3.11 Chromosome and DNA ………………………………………………… 112
4.3.12 Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)………………….. 113
4.3.13 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)………………………………………. 115
4.3.14 Calcium………………………………………………………………………. 116
4.4 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………….. 122
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 122
5 Impact of Static Magnetic Field (SMF) on Microorganisms,
Plants and Animals ……………………………………………………………………….. 133
5.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 133
5.2 SMF on Microorganisms…………………………………………………………. 134
5.2.1 SMF on Cellular Growth and Viability……………………………. 134
5.2.2 SMF on Morphological and Biochemical Modifications …… 135
5.2.3 SMF on Genotoxicity …………………………………………………… 136
5.2.4 SMF on Gene and Protein Expression…………………………….. 137
5.2.5 Magnetosome Formation Sensing Magnetic Field ……………. 138
5.2.6 Application of SMF on Antibiotic Resistance, Fermentation
and Wastewater Treatment…………………………………………….. 139
5.3 SMF on Plants………………………………………………………………………… 140
5.3.1 SMF on Germination ……………………………………………………. 140
5.3.2 SMF on Growth …………………………………………………………… 142
5.3.3 SMF on Gravitropism…………………………………………………… 142
5.3.4 SMF on Photosynthesis ………………………………………………… 143
5.3.5 SMF on Redox Status…………………………………………………… 144
5.3.6 Cryptochromes Sensing Magnetic Field………………………….. 144
5.4 SMF on Animals…………………………………………………………………….. 145
5.4.1 SMF on Caenorhabditis elegans ……………………………………. 145
5.4.2 SMF on Insects……………………………………………………………. 146
5.4.3 SMF on Helix pomatia………………………………………………….. 148
5.4.4 SMF on Aquatic Animals ……………………………………………… 148
5.4.5 SMF on Xenopus laevis………………………………………………… 149
5.4.6 SMF on Mice and Rats…………………………………………………. 152
5.4.7 Magnetic Sensing Protein in Animals …………………………….. 158
5.5 Conclusion and Persperctives…………………………………………………… 159
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
Part III Opportunities for Static Magnetic Field (SMF)-Based Therapies
6 Potential Applications of Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs)
in Cancer Treatment……………………………………………………………………… 175
6.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 175
6.2 SMF Effects on Cancer Cells……………………………………………………. 176
6.2.1 SMFs Could Inhibit Some Cancer Cell Growth
While Have a Minimal Effect on Non-cancer Cells………….. 176
6.2.2 SMFs Change EGFR Orientation and Inhibit
Its Kinase Activity to Reduce Cancer Cell Proliferation ……. 178
6.2.3 SMFs and Cell Division………………………………………………… 182
6.2.4 SMFs and Tumor Microcirculation ………………………………… 184
Contents

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6.3 SMFs in Combination with Other Treatments…………………………….. 185
6.3.1 SMFs in Combination with Chemodrugs………………………… 185
6.3.2 SMFs in Combination with Pulsed Magnetic Field (PMF)… 189
6.3.3 SMFs in Combination with Radiotherapy ……………………….. 192
6.4 Patient Studies………………………………………………………………………… 194
6.5 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………….. 196
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 196
7 Prospects, Pitfalls, and Opportunities for Human Static
Magnetic Field (SMF) Therapy ……………………………………………………… 201
7.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 201
7.2 Overview of Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Treatment Modalities…. 202
7.2.1 Low-Frequency Sine Waves…………………………………………… 202
7.2.2 Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF)…………………………… 203
7.2.3 Pulsed Radiofrequency Fields (PRF)………………………………. 203
7.2.4 Transcranial Magnetic/Electric Stimulation (TMS) ………….. 204
7.2.5 Static/Permanent Magnetic Fields (SMF) ……………………….. 204
7.2.6 “Non-therapeutic” EMF Exposure Allays Safety Concerns.. 205
7.3 Biomedical Effects of SMF Therapies Categorized
by Field Strength…………………………………………………………………….. 205
7.3.1 “DIY” Treatments with Low to Moderate Strength SMFs Are
Widespread but Unproven …………………………………………….. 205
7.3.2 Hypomagnetic Fields (HMF) – Evidence
for Magnetotherapy by Default?…………………………………….. 206
7.3.3 Stronger Magnetic Fields – Impacts on Human Health……… 208
7.4 Prospects for Three Therapeutic Areas………………………………………. 210
7.4.1 Pain Perception ……………………………………………………………. 211
7.4.2 Blood Flow/Vascularization…………………………………………… 211
7.4.3 In Vitro Evidence for Treatment of Neurological
Disease and Neural Regeneration…………………………………… 213

7.5 Pitfalls with SMF Clinical Studies and Acceptance
of Magnetotherapy………………………………………………………………….. 214
7.5.1 Hyperbolic and Ambiguous Claims vs. Outright
Rejection of Magnetotherapy…………………………………………. 214
7.5.2 Parameters Necessary to Be Controlled
in Magnetotherapy ……………………………………………………….. 215
7.5.3 The Placebo Effect……………………………………………………….. 216
7.6 Concluding Comments ……………………………………………………………. 217
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 217

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