74. Vitamins & Minerals Demystified

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74. Vitamins & Minerals Demystified



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Figures, Graphs, and RDA Tables xiii
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xviii

CHAPTER 1 The B Vitamins—The Energy Vitamins 5
Introducing the B Vitamins 5
Vitamin B1

—Thiamin, the Carbo Burner 9

Vitamin B2

—Riboflavin, the Fat Burner 14

Vitamin B3

—Niacin, Feel the Burn 19
Biotin—the Energy Catalyst 23
Vitamin B5

—Pantothenic Acid, the Center of Energy 25

Vitamin B6

—Pyridoxine, the Protein Burner 28
Folate—the DNA Creator 33
Vitamin B12—Cobalamin, the Blood Maker 41
How the B Vitamins Make Energy Production Possible 46
“Wanna B” Vitamins That Might Not Be Vitamins 48
Quiz 52
CHAPTER 2 Vitamin C—The Citrus Antioxidant 55
The History of Vitamin C 55
The Most Popular Supplement 56
Biosynthesis of Vitamin C 56
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Collagen and Vitamin C 58
Vitamin C as an Antioxidant 60
Vitamin C, Infections, and the Common Cold 62
Vitamin C and Disease Prevention 63
Other Roles of Vitamin C 65
Deficiency of Vitamin C 66
Vitamin C Food Sources 67
Supplemental Forms of Vitamin C 70
Toxicity of Vitamin C 71
Quiz 72
Test: Part One 75

CHAPTER 3 Vitamin A—The Night Sight Vitamin 83
The Forms of Vitamin A 83
Antioxidant Activity 86
Vitamin A and Night Vision 86
Vitamin A Deficiency and Blindness 88
Infections and Vitamin A 88
Cell Formation and Vitamin A 90
Sources of Vitamin A 92
Toxicity of Vitamin A 94
Osteoporosis and Vitamin A 96
Quiz 96
CHAPTER 4 Vitamin D—The Sunshine Vitamin 99
The Forms of Vitamin D 100
Sunlight and Vitamin D 100
Activation of Vitamin D 102
Calcitriol Regulates Genes That Make Proteins 103
Calcitriol Inhibits the Proliferation of Cells 103
How Vitamin D Controls Calcium 104
Vitamin D and Immunity 105
Deficiency of Vitamin D 105

Sources of Vitamin D 106
Toxicity of Vitamin D 107
Quiz 108
CHAPTER 5 Vitamin E—The Fat Antioxidant 111
The Forms of Vitamin E 111
Antioxidant Activity 114
Cholesterol and Vitamin E 116
Vitamin E and Blood Circulation 117
Deficiency of Vitamin E 117
Food Sources of Vitamin E 118
Vitamin E Supplements 121
Toxicity of Vitamin E 123
Quiz 124
CHAPTER 6 Vitamin K—The Green Leafy Vitamin 127
The Forms of Vitamin K 127
Vitamin K and Blood Clotting 128
Vitamin K and Bone Mineralization 129
Deficiency of Vitamin K 130
Infant Vitamin K Deficiency 131
Food Sources of Vitamin K 132
Toxicity of Vitamin K 134
Quiz 135
Test: Part Two 137

CHAPTER 7 Water and Electrolytes 145
Water Output 146
Water Input 148
Electrolytes 149
Blood Pressure and Blood Volume 150
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in the Cells 151
Movement of Electrolytes 152
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in the Body 154

The Acid-Alkaline Balance 155
Quiz 157

CHAPTER 8 The Electrolyte Minerals—Sodium, Chloride,

and Potassium 159
Minerals—an Introduction 159
Sodium 161
Cell Membrane Potential 163
Deficiency of Sodium 163
Recommended Intake of Sodium 164
Sources of Sodium 164
Toxicity of Sodium 166
Chloride 166
Chloride Deficiency 167
Chloride Sources 168
Toxicity of Chloride 168
Potassium 168
Potassium and Energy Production 168
Osteoporosis 169
Potassium Deficiency 169
Food Sources of Potassium 170
Potassium Toxicity and Potassium Supplements 172
Quiz 173
CHAPTER 9 Calcium—The Bone Builder 175
Bone Remodeling 176
Calcium and Muscle Contraction 177
How Calcium Is Regulated in the Blood 178
Deficiency of Calcium 179
Calcium Depletion from Excess Sodium 180
Calcium Depletion from Excess Protein 180
Calcium and Osteoporosis 181
Recommended Levels of Calcium 182
Food Sources of Calcium 182
Calcium Absorption 185

Calcium Supplements 185
Calcium Toxicity 186
Quiz 187

CHAPTER 10 Major Minerals—Phosphorus, Magnesium,

and Sulfur 191
Phosphorus 191
Functions of Phosphorus in the Body 191
Regulation of Phosphorus 195
Deficiency of Phosphorus 196
Recommended Levels for Phosphorus 196
Food Sources of Phosphorus 197
Toxicity of Phosphorus 197
Magnesium 199
Magnesium and Bone Mineralization 200
Muscle Contraction and Relaxation 200
Magnesium Deficiency 201
Sources of Magnesium 201
Toxicity of Magnesium 204
Sulfur 204
Quiz 206
Test: Part Three 209

CHAPTER 11 Iron—The Blood Builder 217
Iron Transports and Stores Oxygen 218
Iron in Energy Production 219
Iron as an Antioxidant 220
Iron and the Immune System 221
Nutrient Interactions with Iron 221
Iron Deficiency 222
High-Risk Individuals for Iron Deficiency 223
The Recommended Daily Allowance for Iron 224
Balancing Deficiency and Overload of Iron 225

Enhancers and Inhibitors of Iron Absorption 227
Iron Overload 230
Iron Supplements 231
Quiz 232
CHAPTER 12 Zinc—The Growth Mineral 225
Zinc and Enzymes 235
Zinc Finger-Like Structures 236
Zinc’s Antioxidant Role 237
Zinc Assists Cell Signaling 237
Nutrient Interactions with Zinc 237
Severe Zinc Deficiency 238
Mild Zinc Deficiency 238
Food Sources of Zinc 240
Absorption of Zinc 242
Zinc Supplements 244
Zinc Requirements 244
Excess Zinc 245
Quiz 246
CHAPTER 13 Minor Trace Minerals—Iodine, Selenium, Copper,
Manganese, Fluoride, Chromium, Molybdenum,
Lead, and Mercury 249
Iodine 249
Thyroid Hormones and Energy Production 250
Iodide in Thyroid Hormones 250
Iodine Deficiency 251
Iodine in Food 253
Selenium 254
Selenium as an Antioxidant 255
Selenium and Thyroid Hormones 255
Selenium and the Immune System 256
Selenium and Cancer 256
Sources of Selenium 257
Toxicity of Excess Selenium 257

Copper 259
Copper in Energy Production 259
Copper and Collagen 259
Copper and Iron Transport 259
Copper and Neurotransmitters 260
Copper and Antioxidant Activity 260
Copper Deficiency 260
Food Sources of Copper 261
Toxicity of Copper 263
Manganese 263
Antioxidant Action of Manganese 263
Manganese and Collagen 264
Manganese Deficiency 264
Food Sources of Manganese 264
Manganese Toxicity 266
Fluoride 267
Deficiency of Fluoride 267
Intake of Fluoride 267
Toxicity of Fluoride 268
Chromium 268
Chromium and Blood Sugar 269
Chromium Deficiency 269
Food Sources for Chromium 270
Chromium Supplements 271
Toxicity of Chromium 271
Molybdenum 272
Deficiency of Molybdenum 272
Dietary Sources of Molybdenum 273
Toxicity of Molybdenum 273
Other Trace Minerals 274
Nickel 274
Silicon 274
Vanadium 274

Cobalt 274
Boron 274
Toxic Heavy Metals 275
Lead 275
Mercury 276
Quiz 276
Test: Part Four 279
Final Exam 285
Appendices 303
Appendix A: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding 303
Appendix B: Weight Loss 305
Appendix C: Antioxidants 308
Appendix D: The Elderly 310
Appendix E: Alcoholism 311
Appendix F: Osteoporosis 312
Appendix G: Quick Summaries 314
Answers to Quizzes 323
Answers to Tests and Final Exam 325
Index 329



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