59.Spa Culture & Medicine

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59.Spa Culture & Medicine

 

 

CATEGORY: Spa Massage – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 59

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Syllabus

List of Abbreviations …………………………………………………………. xi
List of Illustrations ……………………………………………………………. xix
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………….. xxv
Preface ……………………………………………………………………………. xxix
Chapter One: Introduction ……………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Source Material …………………………………………………….. 7
1.2 Aims and Methodological Issues ……………………………… 9
1.3 Semitic Origin and Biblical Survey ………………………….. 11
1.4 Terminology …………………………………………………………. 27
1.5 Leisure-Time Activities and Places of Entertainment … 36
Chapter Two: Geological, Hydrological and Medicinal
Aspects of Hot springs in the Eastern Mediterranean—Past
and Present …………………………………………………………………… 53
2.1 Distribution and Identi cation ………………………………… 56
2.1.1 The Tiberias Basin and the Yarmuk Canyon …. 57
2.1.2 The Western Margins of the Jordan Valley ……. 61
2.1.3 The Dead Sea Basin …………………………………… 62
2.1.4 The Eastern Margins of the Jordan Valley …….. 67
2.1.5 Hot Springs within the Syro-African Rift in
Sinai …………………………………………………………. 68
2.1.6 Thermal Springs in Other Places in Palestine … 69
2.2 Geothermal Energy Utilisation in the Jordan Valley ….. 72
2.3 Examination of Their Use in the Light of Modern
Medicine ……………………………………………………………… 73
Chapter Three: Medicinal Hot Springs and Healing Spas in
the Graeco-Roman World ………………………………………………. 83
3.1 The Original Use of Hot Springs for Medicinal
Purposes ………………………………………………………………. 84
3.2 Healing Qualities and Spa Therapy ………………………… 88
3.3 Ritual Worship ……………………………………………………… 92
3.4 The Military Presence ……………………………………………. 105
3.5 Public Baths and Spas: The Roman Leisure Culture …. 116

Chapter Four: Historical-Archaeological Analysis and
Healing Cults of the Therapeutic Sites in the Eastern
Mediterranean Basin ……………………………………………………… 125
4.1 Hammei-Tiberias ………………………………………………….. 125
4.2 Hammat-Gader ……………………………………………………. 143
4.3 Hammat-Pella ………………………………………………………. 162
4.4 Kallirrhoe …………………………………………………………….. 167
4.5 Hammei-Baarah ………………………………………………….. 180
4.6 Hammei-Livias …………………………………………………….. 197
4.7 The waters of Asia ………………………………………………… 202
4.8 Emmaus-Nicopolis ………………………………………………… 208
Chapter Five: The Healing Properties of the Thermo-mineral
Baths in the Eastern Mediterranean in Ancient Times ………. 225
5.1 The Nature of the Therapeutic Baths in Light of the
Classical Literature ……………………………………………….. 226
5.2 Knowledge and Recommendations according to the
Rabbinic Literature ……………………………………………….. 232
5.3 The Cairo Geniza Fragments as Historical-Medicinal
Evidence ………………………………………………………………. 242
5.4 Medicinal Properties in Light of Archaeological
Finds ……………………………………………………………………. 249
5.4.1 Numismatic Evidence …………………………………. 249
5.4.2 The Epigraphical Material ………………………….. 250
5.4.3 Little Finds ………………………………………………… 255
5.5 A Test Case: The Medical History of Rabbi Judah the
Patriarch ………………………………………………………………. 259
5.5.1 Rabbi Judah’s Bowel Disease ……………………….. 261
5.5.2 Rabbi Judah’s Other Illnesses ………………………. 264
5.5.3 Illnesses in Rabbi Judah’s Family ………………….. 268
5.5.4 Rabbi Judah’s Physicians and Treatments ……… 269
5.5.5 Differential Diagnosis of the Patriarch’s
Illnesses …………………………………………………….. 270

Chapter Six: Daily Life at the Thermo-Mineral Baths
according to Rabbinic Literature …………………………………….. 273
6.1 The Halakhic Stance of the Sages towards Curative
Hot Springs and Baths …………………………………………… 274
6.2 The Sages at the Therapeutic Sites—Aims and
Deeds ………………………………………………………………….. 281

Chapter Seven: Roman Emperors at the Spas in the Eastern
Mediterranean Basin ……………………………………………………… 315
7.1 Vespasian ……………………………………………………………… 316
7.2 Hadrian ……………………………………………………………….. 323
7.3 ‘Antoninus’—Caracalla ………………………………………….. 339
Chapter Eight: The Numismatic Expression of the Medicinal
Hot Springs ………………………………………………………………….. 347
8.1 Tiberias (Hammei-Tiberias) …………………………………… 348
8.2 Pella (Hammat-Pella) ……………………………………………… 353
8.3 Gadara (Hammat-Gader) ………………………………………. 355
8.4 Nautical Symbols and the Tenth Legion Fretensis—
A Reassessment …………………………………………………….. 360
8.4.1 Coins of Gadara City and Their Link to
Nautical Symbols ……………………………………….. 361
8.4.2 Nautical Images on Coins of Inland Cities ……. 365
8.4.3 Evidences for the Presence of the Tenth Legion
Fretensis in the Area of Hammat-Gader …………. 367
8.5 Kefar Agon, the Domain of Gadara and Its Af nity to
Leisure and Amusement Culture …………………………….. 370
8.5.1 The Domain of Gadara and the New
Testament Traditions ………………………………….. 371
8.5.2 Kefar Agon in Rabbinic Literature ……………….. 375
8.5.3 The Origin, Meaning and Development of the
Term Agon ………………………………………………… 377
8.5.4 Competitions, Games and Competitors in
Talmudic Sources ……………………………………….. 383
8.5.5 Kefar Agon: ‘Village of Competitions and
Games’ ……………………………………………………… 385
8.5.6 ‘The Delights of Sons of Men Are Pools and
Baths’ (Babylonian Talmud, Gittin 68a) ……………… 387

Chapter Nine: Pilgrimage to the Spas in the Eastern
Mediterranean during the Later Roman and Byzantine
Periods …………………………………………………………………………. 393
9.1 The Perspective of the Church Fathers and Pilgrims to
the Therapeutic Sites …………………………………………….. 396
9.1.1 Thermal Baths of Tiberias ………………………….. 396
9.1.2 Hammat-Gader …………………………………………. 397
9.1.3 Thermal Baths of Livias ……………………………… 401
9.1.4 Thermal Baths of Baarah …………………………… 401
9.1.5 Thermal Baths of Emmaus-Nicopolis …………… 402
9.2 Christian Ethics Towards Mixed Bathing and Bathing
as a Medical Measure ……………………………………………. 404
9.3 The Contribution of Archaeology to the Christians’
Deeds at the Spas in the Levant ………………………………. 417
9.3.1 Thermal Baths of Emmaus-Nicopolis …………… 418
9.3.2 Thermal Baths of Baarah and Kallirrhoe …….. 418
9.3.3 The Epigraphical Material from
Hammat-Gader Thermal Baths …………………… 419
Chapter Ten: Epilogue ……………………………………………………… 425
Bibliography …………………………………………………………………….. 433
General Index ………………………………………………………………….. 499
Greek Words ……………………………………………………………………. 523
Illustrations ………………………………………………………………………. 525

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