59. Protein-Rich Foods

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59. Protein-Rich Foods

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 59

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Syllabus

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………….I
RÉSUMÉ………………………………………………………………………………………………….III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………V
CONTRIBUTIONS OF AUTHORS ………………………………………………..VI
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS……………………………..VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………VIII
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………….XIV
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………….XVII
NOMENCLATURE…………………………………………………………………XX
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ……………………………………….1

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE…………………………………………..4
2.1 Food Extrusion……………………………………………………………….4
2.2 Introduction of Food Extruders…………………………………………….5
2.2.1 Segmented screw/barrel single-screw ‘wet’ extruders………………..5
2.2.2 Dry extruders…………………………………………………………….6
2.2.3 Interrupted-flight screw extruders…………………………………….7
2.2.4 Twin-screw extruders…………………………………………………..8
2.2.5 Comparison of single-screw extrusion and twin-screw extrusion……..9
2.3 Extruder screw………………………………………………………………..10
2.4 Raw materials for extrusion cooking………………………………………..11
2.4.1 Classification of extrusion cooking ingredients by components…..12
2.4.1.1 Starch………………………………………………………………12
2.4.1.2 Water……………………………………………………………….13
2.4.1.3 Protein ……………………………………………………………13
2.4.1.4 Fiber……………………………………………………………..13
2.4.1.5 Lipid……………………………………………………………14
2.4.1.6 Additives…………………………………………………………14
2.4.2 Classification of ingredients by functions …………………………….14

2.4.2.1 Structure -forming materials………………………………….15
2.4.2.2 Dispersed-phase filling materials…………………………………16
2.4.2.3 Ingredients that act as plasticizers and lubricants…………….17
2.4.2.4 Soluble solids…………………………………………………..18
2.4.2.5 Nucleating substances…………………………………………18
2.4.2.6 Coloring substances……………………………………………18
2.4.2.7 Flavoring substances………………………………………….19
2.5 Soy bean and soy protein isolate………………………………………….19
2.5.1 Soy production in the world…………………………………………19
2.5.2 Soy utilization……………………………………………………………19
2.5.3 Soy foods………………………………………………………………….20
2.5.4 Nutrition and health benefits of soy…………………………………..21
2.6 Operation parameters’ effects on the physical properties of the extruded
products……………………………………………………………………..22
2.6.1 Expansion ratio (ER)………………………………………………..24
2.6.2 Bulk density (BD)……………………………………………………24
2.6.3 Breaking stress (BS)…………………………………………………24
2.6.4 Water solubility index (WSI)…………………………………………..25
2.6.5 Rehydration ratio (RR)………………………………………………….25
2.6.6 Color……………………… …………………………… …………..25
2.6.7 Response surface methodology (RSM)…………………………………26
2.7 Residence time distribution (RTD)……………………………………….27
2.7.1 Theory of RTD………………………………………………………28
2.8 High soy protein content extrusion products…………………………..29
2.9 Drying process ……………………………………………………………….31
2.9.1 Drying (dehydration) principles……………………………………32
2.9.2 Drying curve………………………………………………………….32
2.9.3 Water activity (aw)……………………………………………………..35
2.9.4 Sorption isotherms ……………………………………………………..36
2.10 Frying process……………………………………………………………38
2.10.1 Maillard reaction…………………………………………………….39

2.10.2 Sensory evaluation…………………………………………………..39
2.11 Organization of this thesis……………………. …………………………..42
CHAPTER 3 TWIN SCREW EXTRUSION OF CORN FLOUR AND SOY
PROTEIN ISOLATE (SPI) BLENDS: A RESPONSE SURFACE
ANALYSIS
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………43
3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………43
3.2 Materials and methods…………………………………………………..45
3.2.1 Experiment materials……………………………………………….45
3.2.2 Extrusion process…………………………………………………….45
3.2.3 Experimental design…………………………………………………46
3.2.4 Physical properties…………………………………………………..46
3.2.5 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………49
3.3 Results and discussion……………………………………………………50
3.3.1 Expansion ratio (ER)……………………………………………….50
3.3.2 Bulk density (BD)……………………………………………………55
3.3.3 Breaking stress (BS)…………………………………………………57
3.3.4 Water solubility index (WSI)……………………………………….59
3.3.5 Rehydration ratio (RR)……………………………………………..61
3.3.6 Color………………………………………………………………….63
3.4 Conclusions……………………………………………………………….65
Connective statement to Chapter 4 ………………………………………………66
CHAPTER 4 RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION (RTD) OF SOY PROTEIN
ISOLATES (SPI) AND CORN FLOUR FEED MIX IN A TWIN
SCREW EXTRUDER
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………67
4.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………….68
4.2 Theory of RTD………………………………………………………….69
4.3 Material and methods………………………………………………..72

4.3.1 Experiment material. ……………………………………………….72
4.3.2 Extrusion process. ……………………………………………….72
4.3.3 Experimental design. ………………………………………………73
4.3.4 Calculation of E(t) and F(t).. ………………………………………74
4.4 Results and discussion………………………………………………..76
4.4.1 Significance of factors on RTD parameters……………………..76
4.4.2 Mean Residence Time and its Variance. ……………………….77
4.4.2.1 Mean Residence Time. ………………………………………….77
4.4.2.2 Variance of tm……………………………………………………79
4.4.3 RTD E and F curves…………………………………………………..81
4.4.3.1 Influence of Screw Speed on RTD……………………………..81
4.4.3.2 Influence of Feed Moisture on RTD……………………………..83
4.4.3.3 Influence of Die diameter on RTD………………………………85
4.4.4 Modeling of E and F Distribution……………………………………85
4.4.5 B and M value of the predicted F………………………………………88
4.5 Conclusions………………………………………………………………93
Connective statement to Chapter 5 …………………………………………….94

CHAPTER 5 OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRUSION PROCESS FOR PREPARATION
OF PROTEIN DENSE SOY-CORN BASED FORMULATIONS
Abs tract……… … …… … …… … …… …… … …… … …… … …… …… …95
5.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………..95
5.2 Materials and Methods. ……………………………………………….98
5.2.1 Materials……………………………………………………………..98
5.2.2 Extrusion process……………………………………………………99
5.2.3 Experimental design………………………………………………99
5.2.4 Physical properties………………………………………………..102
5.3 Results and Discussion. ………………………………………………….105
5.3.1 Breaking stress (BS) ………………………………………………108
5.3.2 Bulk density (BD)…………………………………………………112
5.3.3 Expansion ratio (ER) …………………………………………………115
5.3.4 Water solubility index (WSI)……………………………………117

5.3.5 Rehydration rate (RR) ………………………………………………120
5.3.6 Color………………………………………………………………….122
5.3.7 Optimum extrusion conditions and characterization of response
surfaces of physical properties ………………………………………124
5.4 Conclusions……………………………………………………………….128
Connective statement to Chapter 6 ……………………………………………129
CHAPTER 6 DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN-SOY

PROTEIN ISOLATE FORMULATIONS
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………130
6.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………130
6.2 Materials and Method…………………………………………………132
6.2.1 Materials………………………………………………………………132
6.2.2 Experimental design. ………………………………………………….132
6.2.3 Raw material blend preparation for extrusion………………133
6.2.4 Extrusion process …………………………………………………135
6.2.5 Determination of moisture content ………………………………135
6.2.6 Determination of water activity………………………………………136
6.2.7 Determination of moisture ratio (MR)………………………………136
6.3 Results and Discussion……………………………………………………137
6.3.1 Moisture content and water activity results after the extrusion
process………………………………………………………………137
6.3.2 Impact of different variable to the moisture content and the water
activity of the sample during the drying process………………139
6.3.3 Drying time to reach water activity……………………………..142
6.3.4 Modeling of Moisture Ratio (MR) ……………………………………146
6.4 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………152
Connective statement to Chapter 7 ……………………………………………153

CHAPTER 7 FRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTEIN-ENRICHED SNACK
FOOD FROM EXTRUDED CORN FLOUR – SOY PROTEIN
ISOLATE FEED MIX
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………..154
7.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………..154
7.2 Materials and methods………………………………………………..157
7.2.1 Preparation of feed for extrusion…………………………………157
7.2.2 Extrusion process…………………………………………………157
7.2.3 Frying process ………………………………………………………..157
7.2.4 Moisture and oil content determination……………………………..158
7.2.5 Texture . …………………………………………………………..158
7.2.6 Color…………………………………………………………………158
7.2.7 Sensory evaluation. ……………………………………………………159
7.3 Result and discussion……………………………………………………….160
7.3.1 Moisture loss in fried sample…………………………………….160
7.3.2 Oil absorption by extrudates…………………………………….162
7.3.3 Texture……………………………………………………………..164
7.3.4 Color………………………………………………………………..166
7.3.5 Sensory quality…………………………………………………….168
7.4 Conclusions………………………………………………………………171

CHAPTER 8 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS, CONTRIBUTION TO THE

KNOWLEDGE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………….172
CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE…………………………………173
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH…………………..174

References…………………………………………………………………………176

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