58.Testosterone Side effects

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58.Testosterone Side effects

 

 

 

CATEGORY: Anabolic Steroids 100 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 58

FEES: 555/- INR only

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Syllabus

CONTENT

SUMMARY

GENERAL ASPECTS OF SIDE EFFECTS OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Many different bodily function are targeted

Effects on the heart

Cardiac muscle cells have receptors for androgens

Is side effects of anabolic steroids an overstated problem?

Self-reported adverse effects

Female missuse

Different effects of different anabolic steroids

Toxicokinetics

Impurities in illicit samples of anabolic steroids

Explanatory models for adverse effects of anabolic steroids

MORTALITY RATE AFTER USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS

An increased mortality rate

Swedish data

Finnish data

A national population-based cohort study

Tour de France (1947-2012)

ANABOLIC STEROIDS’ IMPACT ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Overview

Cardiologic adverse effects also of other doping substances

Serious cardiovascular adverse effects from use of dietary supplements

Cofactors for adverse events

Changes in lipid metabolism

Metabolic syndrome

Other contributing factors

Conflicting data

TESTOSTERONE SUPPLEMENTATION IN (OLDER) HYPOGONADALA MEN

Cardiovascular risk in older men on testosterone

Testosterone deficiency

Independence of the level of heart dysfunction

Testosterone supplementation

Experimental

SPECIFIED CARDIAC PATHOLOGY AFTER USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Myocardial hypertrophy

Increased left-ventricular mass

Right ventricular myocardial dysfunction after use of anabolic steroids

Increased risk for ischemia

Echocardiography

Left ventricular hypertrophy independently predicts cardiovascular mortality

Movement of the left ventricular wall

Functional effects of left ventricular increased muscle thickness

Effects of resistance training on left ventricular thickness

Heart failure due to anabolic-androgenic steroids

Acute cardiac failure

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Case report

Atherosclorosis

Coronary artery calcifications

Myocardial infarction

Case reports

Thromboembolic disease

Cardiac thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis

Thrombosis

Pulmonary embolism

Cardiac arrhythmias and abnormal electrocardiography

Increased atrial electromechanical delay

Altered autonomic system regulation

QT-interval

Increased QT dispersion and short QT intervals

Experimental

Heart rate

Arterial hypertension

Vascular effects of anabolic steroids

CARDIAC MORPHOLOGY ALTERATIONS DUE TO ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Cardiac structure and functioning

SUDDEN DEATH AFTER USING ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Overviews

Forensic cases

During surgery

Case reports

LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON THE HEART OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Conflicting results

Experimental

DYSLIPIDEMIA

Two-ways action

Postprandial triglyceridaemia, low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein

Total cholesterol

High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and its subfractions

Triglycerides

Apolipoproteins and lipoprotein

Lipoprotein(a)

MISCELEANOUS

Multiple organ failure

Effects on antioxidation after anabolic steroids

Homocystein abnormalities

Studies not showing any cardiotoxic effects

Effects on the cardiovascular system of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids in different sports

Combination with other substances

Increased risk of diabetes

A SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS ON THE HEART

REFERENCES

Testosterone Side effects


What is testosterone?
Testosterone is a naturally occurring sex hormone that is produced in a man’s testicles. Small amounts of testosterone are also produced in a woman’s ovaries and adrenal system.


Testosterone injection is used in men and boys to treat conditions caused by a lack of this hormone, such as delayed puberty or growth. It is only recommended for males with a known medical condition, such as a genetic disorder, problem with certain brain structures (called the hypothalamus and pituitary) or previous chemotherapy.


Testosterone injection is also used in women to treat certain types of breast cancer that have spread to other parts of the body.


Testosterone should not be used to enhance athletic performance or to treat normal male aging.

Important information
Do not use this medicine if you are pregnant or may become pregnant.
You should not receive testosterone if you have prostate cancer, male breast cancer, a serious heart condition, or severe liver or kidney disease.


Misuse of testosterone can cause dangerous or irreversible effects. Testosterone injections should be given only by a healthcare professional. Testosterone can lead to serious problems with the heart, brain, liver, endocrine, and mental health systems. Stopping testosterone may also lead to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.


Testosterone injections have also been linked to a condition called pulmonary oil microembolism (POME), or a blood clot in the lung that can be fatal. Seek medical help immediately for symptoms including chest pain, dizziness, trouble breathing, urge to cough, throat tightening and fainting.


Before taking this medicine
You should not receive testosterone if you are allergic to it, or if you have:
• prostate cancer;
• male breast cancer;
• a serious heart condition;
• severe liver disease;
• severe kidney disease; or
• if you are pregnant or may become pregnant.


To make sure testosterone is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:
• heart disease or coronary artery disease;
• a history of heart attack, stroke, or blood clot;
• diabetes;
• enlarged prostate;
• high cholesterol or triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood);
• breast cancer (in men, or in women who have hypercalcemia);
• liver or kidney disease;
• high calcium levels;
• if you are bedridden or otherwise debilitated; or
• if you take a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven).
This medicine can harm an unborn baby or cause birth defects. Do not use testosterone if you are pregnant or may become pregnant. Tell your doctor right away if you become pregnant during treatment. Use effective birth control while you are receiving this medicine.


It is not known whether testosterone passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. You should not breastfeed while using this medicine.


How is testosterone injection given?
Testosterone is injected into a muscle. The injection is usually given every 2 to 4 weeks.
Testosterone injections should be given only by a healthcare professional. Misuse can lead to serious side effects or death.


The length of treatment will depend on the condition being treated.
Testosterone will not enhance athletic performance and should not be used for that purpose.
While receiving this medicine, you will need frequent blood tests.
Testosterone can affect bone growth in boys who are treated for delayed puberty. Bone development may need to be checked with x-rays every 6 months during treatment.

See also:
Testosterone dosage information (in more detail)

What happens if I miss a dose?
Since this medication is given by a healthcare professional in a medical setting, an overdose is unlikely to occur. If overdose does occur, it can lead to death. Seek medical attention immediately.

What happens if I overdose?
Since this medication is given by a healthcare professional in a medical setting, an overdose is unlikely to occur.


What should I avoid while receiving testosterone injection?
Follow your doctor’s instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

Testosterone side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any signs of an allergic reaction to testosterone: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.


Get emergency medical help if you have any signs of a blood clot in the lung after using testosterone. These symptoms include chest pain, dizziness, trouble breathing, urge to cough, throat tightening and fainting.
Misuse of testosterone can cause dangerous or irreversible effects, such as enlarged breasts, small testicles, infertility, high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, liver disease, bone growth problems, addiction, and mental effects such as aggression and violence.


Call your doctor at once if you have:
• chest pain or pressure, pain spreading to your jaw or shoulder;
• swelling in your ankles or feet, rapid weight gain;
• chest pain, sudden cough, wheezing, rapid breathing, coughing up blood;
• pain, swelling, warmth, or redness in one or both legs;
• nausea or vomiting;
• changes in skin color;
• increased or ongoing erection of the penis;
• impotence, ejaculation problems, decreased amounts of semen, decrease in testicle size;
• painful or difficult urination;
• shortness of breath (even with mild exertion);
• stomach pain, constipation, increased thirst or urination, muscle pain or weakness, joint pain, confusion, and feeling tired or restless; or
• upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

Women receiving testosterone may develop male characteristics, which could be irreversible if treatment is continued. Call your doctor at once if you notice any of these signs of excess testosterone:
• acne;
• changes in menstrual periods;
• male-pattern hair growth (such as on the chin or chest);
• hoarse or deepened voice; or
• enlarged clitoris.
Common testosterone side effects (in men or women) may include:
• breast swelling;
• headache, anxiety;
• increased facial or body hair growth, male-pattern baldness;
• increased or decreased interest in sex;
• numbness or tingly feeling; or
• pain or swelling where the medicine was injected.
What other drugs will affect testosterone?
Certain drugs may interact with testosterone, including;
• Blood thinners (including warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven)
• Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as oxyphenbutazone


Other prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products may also react with testosterone. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.

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