516. Visual Science Clinical Optometry

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516. Visual Science Clinical Optometry

 

 

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Syllabus

SECTION 1: ANATOMY

1. ANATOMY OF THE EYEBALL ……………………………………. 3
i. Cornea ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4
ii. Sclera ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
iii. Limbus ……………………………………………………………………………….. 9
iv. Anterior Chamber……………………………………………………………. 10
v. Posterior Chamber…………………………………………………………… 12
vi. Uveal Tract ……………………………………………………………………….. 12
vii. Retina ……………………………………………………………………………….. 18
viii. Optic Nerve ……………………………………………………………………… 24
ix. Lens ………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
x. Vitreous Humour …………………………………………………………….. 27
xi. Blood Supply of Eyeball ………………………………………………….. 28
2. ANATOMY OF APPENDAGES OF THE EYEBALL ….. 31
i. Conjunctiva ………………………………………………………………………. 31
ii. Eyelids ………………………………………………………………………………. 32
iii. Lacrimal Apparatus ………………………………………………………….. 36
iv. Muscles of the Eye …………………………………………………………… 38
v. Levator Palpebrae Superioris …………………………………………… 41
3. ANATOMY OF THE ORBIT……………………………………….. 43
i. Roof ………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
ii. Medial Wall ………………………………………………………………………. 44
iii. Floor …………………………………………………………………………………. 45
iv. Lateral Wall ………………………………………………………………………. 45
v. Orbital Contents ………………………………………………………………. 45
vi. Superior Orbital Fissure (Sphenoidal) ……………………………… 45
vii. Interior Orbital Fissure (Sphenomaxillary) ……………………… 46
viii. Optic Foramen (Optic Canal) …………………………………………… 46
ix. Surgical Anatomical Spaces within the Orbit ………………….. 47
SECTION 2: PHYSIOLOGY AND
NEUROLOGY OF VISION

4. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE OCULAR STRUCTURES ……… 51
i. Aqueous Humour ……………………………………………………………. 51
ii. Vitreous Humour …………………………………………………………….. 54

iii. Cornea ……………………………………………………………………………… 55
iv. Lens ………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
v. Tears …………………………………………………………………………………. 60
5. PHYSIOLOGY OF VISION …………………………………………. 64
i. Photochemical Changes …………………………………………………… 64
ii. Electrical Changes …………………………………………………………….. 65
iii. Visual Perceptions (or Sensations)…………………………………… 69
iv. Colour Sense …………………………………………………………… 76
6. THE NEUROLOGY OF VISION …………………………………. 84
i. Visual Pathway ………………………………………………………………… 84
ii. Pupillary Pathway ……………………………………………………………. 86
iii. Pupillary Reflexes …………………………………………………………….. 88
iv. Pupillary Reaction Disorders ……………………………………………. 90
SECTION 3: LIGHT AND OPTICAL PRINCIPLES
7. LIGHT AND HUMAN EYE: BASIC OPTICAL
PRINCIPLES …………………………………………………………………. 95
i. Light and Electromagnetic Spectrum ………………………………. 95
ii. Basic Optical Principles of Human Eye …………………………… 97
iii. Axes and Angles of the Eye ………………………………………….. 101
iv. Optical Aberrations of the Eye ……………………………………… 102
v. Purkinje Images ……………………………………………………………… 108
vi. Retinal Image …………………………………………………………………. 109
8. ACCOMMODATION AND ITS ANOMALIES ………… 110
i. Accommodation ……………………………………………………………… 110
ii. Insufficiency of Accommodation ……………………………………. 113
iii. Paralysis of Accommodation …………………………………………. 113
iv. Spasm of Accommodation …………………………………………….. 114
SECTION 4: REFRACTIVE ERRORS
AND CORRECTION

9. ERRORS OF REFRACTION ……………………………………….. 119
i. Hypermetropia ……………………………………………………………….. 120
ii. Myopia ……………………………………………………………………………. 123
iii. Astigmatism ……………………………………………………………………. 127
iv. Anisometropia ………………………………………………………………… 132
v. Aphakia …………………………………………………………………………… 134
vi. Pseudophakia ………………………………………………………………….. 137
vii. Presbyopia ………………………………………………………………………. 139
xiv Textbook of Visual Science and Clinical Optometry

10. ESTIMATION AND CORRECTION OF
REFRACTIVE ERRORS ………………………………………………. 142
i. Retinoscopy …………………………………………………………………….. 142
ii. Autorefractometry ………………………………………………………….. 150
iii. Photorefraction ……………………………………………………………….. 150
iv. Subjective Refraction ………………………………………………………. 150
v. Prescription for Spectacles ……………………………………………… 152
SECTION 5: PRACTICAL OPHTHALMICS AND

CLINICAL OPTOMETRY
11. MATERIALS—OPHTHALMIC LENS
AND SPECTACLE FRAME ………………………………………… 159
i. Ophthalmic Lens Materials …………………………………………….. 159
ii. Spectacle Frame Materials ……………………………………………… 163
12. OPHTHALMIC LENSES ……………………………………………. 170
i. Spherical Lenses ……………………………………………………………… 170
ii. Cylindrical Lenses …………………………………………………………… 173
iii. Unit of Lens Power ……………………………………………………….. 174
iv. Special Types of Lenses …………………………………………………. 175
v. Transposition ………………………………………………………………….. 178
vi. Neutralisation (Determination of Power of a Lens) …….. 179
13. COATINGS AND TINTS OF LENSES……………………… 183
i. Antireflection Coating (AR Coating) …………………………….. 183
ii. Tints ………………………………………………………………………………… 187
iii. Photochromism ………………………………………………………………. 188
iv. Hard Coating/Scratch Resistant Coating………………………. 190
v. Ultraviolet Inhibitors ………………………………………………………. 191
vi. Water Resistant/Hydrophobic Coating…………………………. 191
vii. Polaroid Lenses ………………………………………………………………. 192
viii. Lens Care and Cleaning ………………………………………………… 193
14. FRAMES AND LENSES: DIMENSIONS,
MEASUREMENTS AND STYLES……………………………… 194
i. Spectacle Frame Dimensions ………………………………………….. 194
ii. Parts of a Frame ……………………………………………………………. 195
iii. Common Terminologies Associated with Frame …………. 196
iv. Shapes of Frames …………………………………………………………… 196
v. Common Types of Frames ……………………………………………. 197
vi. Special Types of Spectacle Frames ………………………………… 198
vii. Informations Available from the Frame ……………………….. 198
viii. Lens Styles ……………………………………………………………………… 200

ix. Optical Centre of Lens …………………………………………………… 207
x. Pupillary (or Interpupillary) Distance ……………………………. 207
xi. Vertex Distance ………………………………………………………………. 210
15. CONTACT LENS ……………………………………………………….. 211
i. Indications ………………………………………………………………………. 211
ii. Advantages Over Spectacles ………………………………………….. 212
iii. Optics of Contact Lenses ……………………………………………….. 213
iv. Scleral Contact Lens ……………………………………………………….. 214
v. Semiscleral (or Soft or Hydrogel) Contact Lens …………… 215
vi. Corneal (or Rigid) Contact Lens …………………………………… 216
vii. Fitting Procedures ………………………………………………………….. 217
viii. Contact Lens Related Informations and Terminologies .. 220
ix. Assessment of Soft Contact Lens Fitting………………………. 222
x. Assessment of Rigid Contact Lens Fitting ……………………. 223
xi. Determination of Contact Lens Power …………………………. 225
xii. Complications of Contact Lens Wear……………………………. 226
SECTION 6: SPECIAL CHAPTERS
16. OPHTHALMIC INSTRUMENTATION …………………….. 231
i. Slit-lamp Biomicroscope …………………………………………………. 231
ii. Tonometry ……………………………………………………………………… 244
iii. Gonioscopy …………………………………………………………………….. 250
iv. Indirect Biomicroscopy …………………………………………………… 258
v. Lens Measure (or Geneva Lens Measure)…………………….. 263
vi. Keratometer (or Ophthalmometer)……………………………….. 264
vii. Lensometer (or Focimeter) ……………………………………………. 266
viii. Direct Ophthalmoscope ………………………………………………….. 269
17. LOW VISION AND LOW VISUAL AID ………………….. 273
i. Clinical Assessment of a Patient with Low Vision ……….. 273
ii. Management of Patients with Low Vision ……………………. 276
iii. Working Principle of Low Visual Aids …………………………. 277
iv. Low Visual Devices ………………………………………………………… 278
18. PAEDIATRIC EYE EXAMINATION …………………………. 281
i. History Taking ……………………………………………………………….. 281
ii. Ophthalmic Examination Proper ……………………………………. 281
iii. Clinical Examination of the Eye Proper………………………… 287
iv. Milestones—Normal Visual Maturation and Reflexes …… 288
v. Normal Visual Acuity Maturation (Age-related) …………… 289
Index …………………………………………………………………………….. 291

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