470. Essentials Of Dentistry

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470. Essentials Of Dentistry

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 470

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Syllabus

1. Rubber Dam Isolation……………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Introduction 1; Goals of Isolation 1; Advantages 2; Disadvantages 2; Materials 3;
Sizes 3; Thickness 3; Color 3; Uses 3; Holder 3; Retainer/Clamp 5; Punch 7;
Retainer Forcep 7; Napkin 7; Lubricant 9; Sealants 9; Rubber Dam Template 10;
Placement of Rubber Dam 10; Removal of Rubber Dam 11; Contraindications 11
2. Retention Form of Amalgam Preparation ………………………………………………….. 12
Tooth Preparation 12; Stages and Steps for Tooth Preparation 12
3. Wedges …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
Purpose 15; Requirement 15; Parts of Wedges 15; Types 15; Sizes 16; Shapes
16; Function 16; Methods of Insertion 17
4. Gates Gliddens and Peeso Reamers ………………………………………………………… 20
Sizes of Gates Glidden Drill 20; Sizes of Peeso Reamer 21; Parts 22; Usefulness
in Preparing Root Canals 22; Straightening the Canal 23; Main Uses 25;
Flexogates 25
5. Dental Caries Classifications …………………………………………………………………… 26
Based on Anatomic Site 26; Based on Severity 27; Based on Progress 27; Based
on Chronology 28; Based on Direction of Spread 28
6. Differences Between the Inlay and Amalgam Restorations ………………………… 29
7. Electric Pulp Testing ……………………………………………………………………………….. 33
Principle 33; Electrolyte 33; Types of Pulp Testers 33; Site 33; Procedure 34;
Precautions 35; Contraindications 36; Responses 36
8. Dental Adhesion …………………………………………………………………………………….. 38
Adhesion 38; Adhesive Joint 38; Micromechanical Bonding 38; Bonding
Systems 38; Adhesive Considerations for Direct Composite Restorations 39;
Dental Adhesive Systems 40; Rationale of Adhesive Systems 43; Newer Adhesive
Developments 45; Key Points to Ensure Effective Bonding with Total Etch
System 46; Key Points to Ensure Effective Bonding with Self-etch System 47
9. Bleaching ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
Introduction 48; Classification of Bleaching Agents 48; Hydrogen Peroxide 49;
Bleaching Techniques 51; Factors Affecting Bleaching 53; Disadvantages of
Bleaching 54; Advantages of Bleaching 55
10. Endodontic Hand Instruments and Instrumentation ………………………………….. 56
Classifications of Endodontic Instruments 56; Standardization 57; Materials Used
for Manufacturing Instruments 59; Manufacturing of Endodontic Instruments 59;
Features of Endodontic Instruments 60; Barbed Broach 61; Rasp 62; Reamers 62;
Files 64; K-file 64; K-flex File (D-type File) 66; Flexo File 66; Flex-R File 66;
H-file (Hedstrom File) 67; Uni File 69; S-file 69; Safety Hedstrom File 69
11. Hand Instruments in Conservative Dentistry and Some
Considerations for Viva Voce …………………………………………………………………… 70
Basic Classification of Dental Instruments 70; Dental Instruments can be Grossly
Divided into Following Two Categories 71; Instrument Nomenclature 72;

Essentials of Dentistry
Instrument Formula 72; Exploring Instruments 72; Instruments for Tooth Structure
Removal 74; Restorative Instruments 74; Hand Instruments 76; Considerations
for Operative Dentistry and Endodontia Viva Voce 81; Clinical Classification of
Traumatic Dental Injuries Including Codes of WHO International Classification 83
12. Gingiva in Health and Disease …………………………………………………………………. 88
13. Dentogingival Junction …………………………………………………………………………… 95
Definition 95; Components 95; Development 95; Mechanism of Attachment of
the Dentogingival Junction 96; Age and Inflammation Changes 97; Clinical
Implication 97
14. Cementum In Disease …………………………………………………………………………….. 98
Structural Changes 98; Chemical Changes 99; Physical Changes 100
15. Tooth Mobility ………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
Introduction 101; Types 101; Causes 102; Factors Affecting Tooth Mobility 102;
Increased vs Increasing Mobility 103; Miller’s Classification (1950) 104;
Glickman’s Classification (1972) 104; Lindhe’s Classification 104; Stages of Tooth
Mobility 104; Measurement of Tooth Mobility 104; Generalized Treatment of
Mobility 106
16. Food Impaction …………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
Definition 107; Types 107; Factors Affecting Food Impaction 107; Plunger Cusp 108;
Classification of Factors Causing Food Impaction 108; Signs and Symptoms 111;
Prevention and Treatment 111
17. Halitosis ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
Definition 114; Clinical Features 114; Primary Factors Affecting Halitosis 115;
Microbiota in Halitosis 115; Mechanisms 115; Etiology 116; Diagnosis 119;
Prevention 121; Management of Oral Malodor 121
18. Periodontal Probe …………………………………………………………………………………. 123
Definition 123; Design 123; Functions 123; Classification of Probes 124
19. Probing………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
Definition 129; Probing Technique 129; Interpretation 131; Limitations 132; Factors
Affecting Probing 132; Probing at Various Times 132
20. Scalers and Curettes …………………………………………………………………………….. 134
Differences of Gracey Curette and Universal Curette 137; Comparison of Scalers 138;
Areas of Instrumentation of Gracey Curettes 141
21. Gingival Curettage ………………………………………………………………………………… 143
Definition 143; Rationale 144; Indications 144; Contraindications 144; Limitations 144;
Procedures 145; Other Techniques 145; Healing after Curettage 146
22. Infrabony Pocket…………………………………………………………………………………… 147
Signs 147; Symptoms 147; Classifications of Pockets 148; Classifications of
Periodontal Pockets 148; Classifications of Infrabony Defects 148; Etiology of
Infrabony Pocket and Infrabony Defect 151; Incidence 151; Diagnosis of Infrabony
Defect 151; Treatment 152
23. Bone Replacement Grafts ……………………………………………………………………… 157
Extra and Intraoral Donor Sites for Autogenous Bone Grafts 157; Osseous
Coagulum 158; Bone Blend 158; Bone Swaging 158; Allogenic Bone Grafts 158;
Alloplastic Materials 160; Xenografts 160

24. Hypersensitivity ……………………………………………………………………………………. 162
Definition 162; Basic Concepts of Tooth Sensitivity 162; Pain Mediators 162;
Neurophysiology 162; Other Theories of Dentin Hypersensitivity 163;
Prevalence 163; Highest Incident Site 164; Pathophysiology 164; Causes 165;
Clinical Implications 165; Diagnostic Methods 165; Conditions to Rule Out
Hypersensitivity 166; Ways to Rule Out 166; Occurrence of Pain 166; People at
Risk 166; Treatment Strategies 167; Management of Hypersensitivity 167
25. Definitions and Questionnaire for Periodontia Viva Voce …………………………. 173
Gingiva 173; The Tooth-supporting Structure 178; Epidemiology of Periodontal
Disease and Gingival Disease 180; Periodontal Microbiology 180; Dental Calculus
181; Role of Iatrogenic and Other Local Factors 181; Dental Occlusion 181;
Influence of Systemic Diseases on Periodontium 184; Clinical Features of
Gingivitis 184; Gingival Enlargement 185; Acute Gingival Infections 185;
Desquamative Gingivitis and Oral Mucous Membrane Diseases 186; Periodontal
Pocket 186; Bone Loss and Pattern of Bone Loss 187; Periodontal Response to
External Forces 188; Prepubertal and Juvenile Periodontitis 188; Other 188; Rationale
for Periodontal Treatment 189; Principle of Periodontal Instrumentation 189; Plaque
Control 190; Questionnaire for Periodontia Viva Voce 191; Scaling and Root
Planing 208; History 209; Few Points about Intraoral Examination 209
26. Ameloblastoma …………………………………………………………………………………….. 226
Tumors 226; Odontogenic Tumors 226; Classification 226; Ameloblastoma 227;
History 227; Definition 227; Etiology 227; Classification 228; Pathogenesis 228;
Incidence 228; Age 228; Sex 229; Site 229; Size 229; Race 229; Preceding
Factors 229; Onset 229; Clinical Features 229; Spread 230; Radiographic
Features 230; Diagnostic Aids 231; Histological Features 231; Management 233;
Specific Principles 233
27. Properties of X-rays ………………………………………………………………………………. 234
Radiation 234; X-radiation 234; Properties of X-rays 234
28. Considerations for Oral Medicine Viva Voce……………………………………………. 238
Types of Geographic Tongue 245; Syndromes with Characteristic Features 256
29. Orbital Blow Out Fracture ……………………………………………………………………… 265
Definition 265; Etiology 265; Types 265; Sites 265; Clinical Signs 267; Diagnosis 267;
Management 268
30. Considerations for Oral Surgery Viva Voce……………………………………………… 273
Leukoplakia (WHO—1975) 273; Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) 273;
Sialosis 273; Sialadenitis and Sialodochitis 273; Sialadenosis 273;
Xerostomia 273; Sialolithiasis 273; Sialectasis 273; Sialorrhea/Ptylism 273;
Trigeminal Neuralgia 274; Pain 274; Local Anesthesia 274; Ludwig’s Angina 274;
Bell’s Palsy 274; Osteomyelitis 274; Cyst 274; Marsupialization 274;
Neuralgia 275; Tumors/Neoplasm 275; Some Considerations for Viva Voce 275;
Some Commonly Used Compositions 278; Classifications 278; Tooth
Impaction 284
31. Morphological Differences between Primary and Permanent Teeth …………… 286
32. Definitions in Pedodontia ………………………………………………………………………. 293
Pedodontics 293; Psychology 293; Child Psychology 293; Child Management 293;
Emotion 293; Behavior 293; Fear 293; Anxiety 293; Phobia 294; Behavioral
Science 294; Behavior Management 294; Behavior Shaping 294; Behavior

Modification 294; Nursing Caries 294; Rampant Caries 294; Plunger Cusp 294; Pit
and Fissure Sealants 294; Indirect Pulp Capping 294; Direct Pulp Capping 295;
Pulpotomy 295; Pulpectomy 295; Apexogenesis 295; Apexification 295; Preventive
Orthodontics 295; Interceptive Orthodontics 295; Space Control 295; Space
Maintenance 295; Space Maintainer 295; Habit 296; Thumb Sucking 296; Tongue
Thrusting 296; Mouth Breathing 296; Bruxism 296; Self-injurious Habit 296;
Handicapped Person 296; Mental Retardation 296; Cerebral Palsy 296
Index ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 299

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