44. Physiological Biochemistry: An Organ-Based Approach

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44. Physiological Biochemistry: An Organ-Based Approach

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 44

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Syllabus

Preface xi
1 Introduction to metabolism 1
Overview of the chapter 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Metabolic pathways 2
1.3 Organization of pathways 4
1.4 Enzymes and enzyme-mediated reactions 6
1.5 Bioenergetics: an introduction to biological
thermodynamics 16
1.6 Enzyme-mediated control of metabolic
pathways 17
1.7 Strategy for learning the details of a pathway:
‘active learning’ is essential 20
Chapter summary 26
Problems and challenges 27
2 Dynamic and quantitative aspects of metabolism:
bioenergetics and enzyme kinetics 29
Overview of the chapter 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Bioenergetics: the application of thermodynamic
principles to biological systems 30
2.3 Enzyme kinetics 39
2.4 Energy generating metabolic processes 45
Chapter summary 50
Problems and challenges 52

3 Principles of metabolic control: enzymes, substrates,
inhibitors and genes 55
Overview of the chapter 55
3.1 Introduction 55
3.2 General principles 56
3.3 Glycolysis and the Krebs TCA cycle as models of
control of metabolic pathways 71
Chapter summary 78
Problems and challenges 79
4 Biochemistry of intercellular communication; metabolic
integration and coordination 81
Overview of the chapter 81
Key pathways 81
4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Physiological aspects 82
4.3 Signalling molecules 85
4.4 Synthesis of hormones 86
4.5 Hormone and neurotransmitter storage, release and transport 95
4.6 Hormone and neurotransmitter inactivation 97
4.7 Target tissue response to signals 99
4.8 Diabetes mellitus 119
Chapter summary 123
Case notes 124
5 Biochemistry of the blood and the vascular system 127
Overview of the chapter 127
Key pathways 127
5.1 Introduction 127
5.2 The blood vascular system 129
5.3 Circulating blood cells 136
5.4 Coagulation and complement: two of the body’s
defence mechanisms 159
5.5 Blood as a transport medium 160
Chapter summary 166
Case notes 167
6 Biochemistry of the liver 171
Overview of the chapter 171
Key pathways 171

6.1 Introduction 171
6.2 Physiology of the liver 171
6.3 Synthetic functions 172
6.4 Detoxification and waste disposal 197
6.5 Maintenance of blood glucose concentration 212
Chapter summary 226
Case notes 226
7 Biochemistry of muscle 229
Overview of the chapter 229
Key pathways 229
7.1 Introduction 229
7.2 Physiology of muscles 230
7.3 Fuel metabolism within muscles 236
7.4 Maintenance of ATP availability in active muscle 242
7.5 Fatty acid as a fuel in muscle 248
7.6 Proteins and amino acids as fuels 254
7.7 Fuel utilization by muscle: adaptation
to exercise and training 256
Chapter summary 258
Case notes 259
8 Biochemistry of the kidneys 261
Overview of the chapter 261
Key pathways 261
8.1 Introduction 261
8.2 Renal physiology 262
8.3 Metabolic pathways in the kidneys 276
Chapter summary 279
Case notes 279
9 Biochemistry of connective tissue: bone and adipose 283
Overview of the chapter 283
Key pathways 283
9.1 Introduction 283
9.2 Histology of connective tissue 284
9.3 The ECM of connective tissue 284
9.4 Bone 295
9.5 Cartilage 301
9.6 Adipose tissue 301

Chapter summary 308
Case notes 309
Appendix 1 Answers to problems 313
Appendix 2 Table of important metabolic pathways 321
Index 323

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