415. Practical Ophthalmology

You are here: Home / 415. Practical Ophthalmology

415. Practical Ophthalmology

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 415

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
o n e Introduction to the Practice of Ophthalmology
Practicing Ophthalmology 2
Responsibilities of the Resident 3
Stress During Residency Training 4
Recognizing Stress and Its Sources 5
Dealing With Early Discouragement 6
Ethical Considerations 7
About This Manual 8
Beyond This Manual: Education and Training
Pitfalls and Pointers 9
Suggested Resources 10
t w o Overview of the Ophthalmic Evaluation 11
History 12
Examination 12
Ophthalmic Equipment 13
Physician Demeanor and Approach to the Patient
Pediatric Patients 15
Elderly Patients 15
Medical Record Keeping 16

t h r e e History Taking 19
Goals of the History 20
Methods of Recording the History 21
Components of the History 21
Chief Complaint 22
Present Illness 22
Past Ocular History 25
Ocular Medications 26
General Medical and Surgical History 27
Systemic Medications 27
Allergies 28
Social History 28
Family History 29
Pitfalls and Pointers 29
Suggested Resources 30
fo u r Visual Acuity Examination 31
Testing Conventions and Materials 32
Measurement Notation 32
Test Targets 33
Standard Abbreviations 34
Testing Procedures 35
Distance Acuity Test 36
Pinhole Acuity Test 36
Near Acuity Test 37
Other Tests of Near Vision 38
Acuity Tests for Special Patients 38
Low-Vision Testing 39
Testing Children and Special Adults 39
Variables in Acuity Measurements 42
Uncorrectable Visual Acuity 45
Amblyopia 46
Pitfalls and Pointers 17
Suggested Resources 17

six Ocular Motility Examination 101
Strabismus Terminology 102
Motility Terminology 105
Function of the Extraocular Muscles 105
Ocular Motility Examination 108
Overview of Examination 108
Tests of Binocularity and Fusion 109
Stereopsis 109
Other Tests of Binocular Status 109
Tests of Alignment 111
Red Reflex Test 112
Corneal Light Reflection Test 112
Cover Tests 114
Other Considerations With Alignment Tests 1
Evaluation of Eye Movements (Motility) 118
Pitfalls and Pointers 118
Suggested Resources 119
s e v e n Pupillary Examination 123
Anatomy of Pupillary Pathways 124
Parasympathetic Pathway (Light-Reflex Pathway)
Near-Reflex Pathway 125
Sympathetic Pathway 126
Examination of the Pupils 127
General Pupillary Observation 127
Light-Reflex Test 128
Swinging Flashlight Test 128
Near-Reflex Test 129
Abnormal Pupils 129
Iris Abnormalities 129
Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect 131
Light-Near Dissociation 131
Homer Syndrome 132
The Fixed and Dilated Pupil 133

e ig h t Visual Field Examination 139
The Visual Field 140
Screening Tests 141
Confrontation Fields Testing 141
Special Situations 142
Amsler Grid Test 143
Manual Perimetry 144
Tangent Screen Testing 145
Goldmann Perimetry 146
Automated Perimetry 147
Test Targets and Strategies 147
Patient Preparation 148
Test Selection 149
Interpretation of a Computerized Printout
Common Visual Field Defects 153
Eye and Shape 153
Location 155
Symmetry 155
Localizing Visual Field Defects 155
Progression 155
Pitfalls and Pointers 156
Suggested Resources 159
n in e External Examination 167
Situating the Patient 168
General Observation 168
Inspection 169
Head and Face 169
Orbit 172
Eyelids 174
Lacrimal System 176
Globe 176
Pitfalls and Pointers 135
Suggested Resources 135

Palpation 178
Head and Face 179
Orbit 180
Eyelids 180
Lacrimal System 181
Globe 181
Auscultation 182
Pitfalls and Pointers 182
Suggested Resource 183
t e n Slit-Lamp Biomicroscopy 201
Uses of the Slit Lamp 202
Parts of the Slit Lamp 202
The Viewing Arm 202
The Illumination Arm 203
The Patient-Positioning Frame 204
The Base 204
Other Attachments 205
Preparing and Positioning the Patient
Principles of Slit-Lamp Illumination
Diffuse Illumination 207
Direct Focal Illumination 208
Specular Reflection 209
Transillumination 210
Indirect Lateral Illumination 210
Sclerotic Scatter 211
Oscillatory Illumination 212
Special Techniques 212
The Slit Lamp as a Measuring Device
Gonioscopy 213
Fundus Examination With the Slit Lamp
Goldmann Tonometry 215
Slit-Lamp Photography 215
Pitfalls and Pointers 215
Suggested Resource 215

e le v e n Anterior Segment Examination 217
Overview of the Anterior Segment Examination
Lacrimal Gland and Skin 218
Eyelids and Eyelashes 220
Tumors 221
Blepharitis 222
Conjunctiva 225
Palpebral Conjunctiva 225
Limbal Conjunctiva 230
Bulbar Conjunctiva 231
Other Conjunctival Abnormalities 235
Episclera and Sclera 235
Episcleritis 236
Scleritis 236
Pigmentations 238
Involutional Hyaline Plaques 238
Tear Film 239
Overall Wetness 239
Tear Meniscus 239
Tear Film Breakup Time 240
Other Tear Film Abnormalities 240
Cornea 240
Epithelium 241
Bowmans Layer 243
Stroma 244
Descemet s Membrane 247
Endothelium 247
Anterior Chamber 248
Anterior Chamber Depth 248
Flare and Cell 249
Blood and Other Foreign Matter 249
Iris 250
Nodules 251
Neovascularization 251

Cysts and Tumors 251
Persistent Pupillary M embrane Remnants 251
Other Abnormalities 252
C rystallin e Lens 2 5 2
Cataract 253
Subluxation and Luxation 256
Other Conditions 256
Retrolental Space and Anterior Vitreous 256
Gonioscopy 257
Stains 261
Fluorescein 261
Rose Bengal 262
Pitfalls and Pointers 263
Suggested Resources 263
t w e l v e Tonometry 269
IOP Measurement Conventions and Population Means 270
Types of Tonometers 270
Applanation Tonometers 270
Indentation Tonometers 271
Goldmann Applanation Tonometry 272
Disinfection of the Applanating Tip 273
Schiotz Indentation Tonometry 273
Disinfection of the Schiotz Tonometer 274
Pitfalls and Pointers 274
Suggested Resources 276
t h ir t e e n Posterior Segment Examination 281
Anatomic Landmarks 282
Pupillary Dilation 286
Instrumentation for Examination 286
Indirect Ophthalmoscope 287
Slit-Lamp Biomicroscope 289
Direct Ophthalmoscope 289

Indirect Ophthalmoscopy 290
Headset Adjustment 291
Choosing and Positioning the Condensing Lens 292
Changing Position to View Different Fundus Areas 294
Sequence of the Complete Examination 296
Scleral Depression 297
Transillumination 300
Posterior Segment Examination With the Slit Lamp 300
Indirect Slit-Lamp Biomicroscopy 300
Hruby Lens Biomicroscopy 301
Contact Lens Biomicroscopy 303
Direct Ophthalmoscopy 303
Overview of the Examination 304
The Fundus Record 306
Drawing the Indirect Ophthalmoscopic View 309
Drawing the Slit-Lamp Biomicroscopic View 311
Drawing the Direct Ophthalmoscopic View 311
Imaging Studies 311
Photography 311
Angiography 312
Optical Coherence Tomography 312
Ultrasonography 313
The Normal Fundus and Its Common Variations 314
Optic Disc 314
Posterior Pole 317
Retinal Blood Vessels 317
Fundus Background 318
Peripheral Fundus 319
Vitreous Humor 320
Pitfalls and Pointers 321
Suggested Resources 323
f o u r t e e n Ophthalmic Emergencies 335
Emergency Equipment and General Evaluation 336
Pediatric Evaluation 337

Ocular Trauma in the Emergency Setting 337
Corneal Abrasion 338
Corneal Foreign Body 339
Globe Laceration 340
Eyelid Laceration 342
Blunt Ocular Trauma 342
Traumatic Hyphema 344
Orbital Fracture 345
Ocular Infections in the Emergency Setting 346
Ophthalmia Neonatorum 347
Acute Conjunctivitis 348
Endophthalmitis 348
Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis 349
True Ocular Emergencies 350
Ocular Chemical Bum 350
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion 351
Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma 352
Pitfalls and Pointers 354
Suggested Resources 355
fifte e n Common Ocular Medications 361
Anesthetic Agents 362
Dyes 362
Anti-Infective Agents 362
Anti-Inflammatory Agents 362
Corticosteroids 365
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs 366
Mydriatics and Cycloplegics 366
Glaucoma Medications 367
Cholinergic Agonists 367
Adrenergic Agonists 367
Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists 370
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors 370
Prostaglandin Analogues 371
Hyperosmotic Agents 371

Decongestant, Vasoconstrictive, and Anti-Allergy Agents 371
Lubricating Medications and Tear Substitutes 371
Corneal Dehydration Medications 372
Suggested Resources 372
Index 373

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Medifit  Courses Demo Certificate 

48 hours delivery

| International acceptance | Medical based | Job oriented | Lifetime validity | Most economical |

 

555 INR Demo Certificate – 2 months duration

Demo Certificate – 6 months duration

48 hours delivery after fees payment

48 hours delivery after fees payment

 

Medifit 48 hours Delivery

  Get your Certificates delivered by online mode in 48 hours after Fees payment. We try to deliver certificates in 24 hours, but the committed delivery hours are 48. Its,

Pay Today &
get Tomorrow

procedure, only by Medifit.

LIFETIME VALIDITY

Medifit issues Lifetime validity certificates for all Online Courses provided. No need to renew the certificates every 2 or 3 years. All Courses Certificates of Medifit are having Lifetime Validity. No need to renew these certificates every 2 or 3 years.

 

What makes the certificates of Medifit to get it recognized Internationally?

Vast number of students applying for Job in international market of Fitness through Medifits Online Courses Certificates. And most importantly, the Medical standards maintained, helps to acquire jobs internationally. This gives very strong International acceptance to Certificates of Medifit Courses.

 

ABOUT MEDIFIT ACADEMY CERTIFICATION COURSE:

Medifit Education Online Academy is an innovative, digital and engaging education platform that delivers fast track accredited courses and skills development courses instantly online, with no time limits, enabling individuals to study anywhere and anytime. We are proud to offer international standard courses that have helped our students build their careers across the globe.

HOW DO MEDIFIT ONLINE CERTIFICATE COURSES HELP?

Short term Professional Courses International Standards courses Opens Global opportunities Career defining Courses Skill Development Programmes Knowledge in short span Learn at your own pace Certification of Completion Immediate Earning Opportunities Positive Social Impact Optimistic Psychological Benefits Improved Standard of Living Study from anywhere & anytime Very Economical Fees