392. Nuclear Medicine In Pharmaceutical Research

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392. Nuclear Medicine In Pharmaceutical Research

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 392

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Contributors page ix
Preface xi
Foreword xiii
1 Ethical and Regulatory Approval for Human Studies 1
A.Warbick-Cerone
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Essential Elements in Organizing a Research Study in
Humans 2
1.3 Summary 13
References 13
2 Instrumentation, Imaging, Data Analysis and Display 15
A.C.Perkins
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Radioactive Tracers 15
2.3 Radiation Detectors 17
2.4 The Radionuclide Calibrator 18
2.5 The Gamma Camera 19
2.6 Image Acquisition 22
2.7 Image Reconstruction and Display 24
2.8 PET Imaging 25
2.9 Image Processing and Data Analysis 27
2.10 Quality Assurance 28
References 29

3 Good Manufacturing Practice in the Preparation of
Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms for Scintigraphic Evaluation 31
M.Frier
3.1 Introduction 31
3.2 Elements of Good Manufacturing Practice 33
3.3 Representative GMP Studies 35
References 40
4 Drug Delivery to the Respiratory Tract 41
J.G.Hardy
4.1 Introduction 41
4.2 Radiolabelling and Imaging 42
4.3 Aerosol Generation 43
4.4 Nasal Drug Delivery 50
4.5 Conclusion 52
References 52
5 Scintigraphic Study of Oesophageal Transit and Retention 57
R.J.Dansereau, R.N.Dansereau and J.W.McRorie
5.1 Introduction 57
5.2 Clinical Presentation and Diagnoses of Oesophageal
Adhesion 60
5.3 Factors Affecting Oesophageal Adhesion 61
5.4 Case Studies 62
References 67
6 Scintigraphic Study of Drug Delivery to the Stomach
and Small Bowel 71
N.Washington and C.G.Wilson
6.1 Introduction 71
6.2 Physiological Factors Affecting Transit 73
6.3 Choice of Radiolabels 74
6.4 Pharmacoscintigraphy 76
6.5 Measurement of Gastric Emptying of Meals and
Dosage Forms 77
6.6 Mechanisms to Increase Gastric Residence 81
6.7 Gastroresistant Coatings 83
6.8 Small Intestine 84
6.9 Regional Differences in Small Bowel Absorption 87
6.10 Use of Gamma Scintigraphy to Examine the
Performance of Novel Sustained Release Dosage Forms 91
6.11 Conclusions 92
References 93

7 Scintigraphic Study of Colonic Release and Absorption 101
J.M.Hebden, A.C.Perkins and R.C.Spiller
7.1 Therapeutic Context and Objectives 101
7.2 Radiolabelled Controlled Release Formulations and
Targeted Drug Delivery to the Right and Left Colon 102
7.3 Colonic Physiology and Absorption 104
7.4 Imaging and Presentation of Data 105
7.5 Volunteer and Patient Studies 106
7.6 Value of Studies in Formulation Design 110
Acknowledgements 111
References 112
8 Scintigraphic Study of Ocular Drug Delivery 115
C.G.Wilson, Y.P.Zhu and M.Frier
8.1 Introduction 115
8.2 Problems with Ocular Drug Delivery 115
8.3 In Vivo Methods of Assessment of Ocular Retention 117
8.4 Imaging and Analysis 118
8.5 Scintigraphic Studies of Various Ophthalmic
Formulations 120
8.6 Conclusions 129
References 129
9 Scintigraphic Study of Drug Carriers and Conjugates 133
M.V.Pimm
9.1 Introduction—Nature of the Problem 133
9.2 Imaging Methods 134
9.3 Choice of Radiolabel 136
9.4 What to Label in Drug Carriers and their Conjugates 139
9.5 Labelling Methods for Carriers and Protein Drugs 140
9.6 Some Practical Examples of Drug Carriers which have
been Radiolabelled and their Biodistribution Studied
Scintigraphically 144
9.7 Polymers as Radiopharmaceuticals 160
9.8 Conclusions 161
Acknowledgements 162
References 162
Note in Proof 171
Index 175

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