390. Nuclear Medicine Physics & Instrumentation

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390. Nuclear Medicine Physics & Instrumentation

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 390

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

PHYSICS OF POSITRON EMISSION AND ANNIHILATION . . . 2
Basic nuclear physics and positron emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Annihilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Positron range and noncolinearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
511 keV PHOTON INTERACTIONS IN MATTER . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Photoelectric interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Compton scattering interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Interaction cross-sections in various materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
511 keV PHOTON DETECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Scintillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Photomultiplier tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Solid state photodetectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Block detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Continuous gamma camera detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Other scintillation detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Other gamma ray detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
DATA COLLECTION AND PET SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS . . 32
Coincidence detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
PET camera: general concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Types of events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Prompt coincidences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Resolution: coincidence response functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Sensitivity: detector and geometric efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Data representation—the sinogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Two-dimensional data acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Three-dimensional data acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Data acquisition protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

vi Physics, Instrumentation, and Scanners
DATA CORRECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Attenuation correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Scatter correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Correction for random coincidences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Dead time correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Backprojection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Analytic reconstruction: projection slice theorem and direct
Fourier reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Two-dimensional analytic reconstruction: filtered backprojection . . 76
Limitations of filtered backprojection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Three-dimensional analytic reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Iterative reconstruction methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
IMAGE ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Image display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Calibration and region of interest analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Image segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Image registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Partial volume effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PET SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Reconstructed spatial resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Scatter fraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Count-rate performance and dead time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Noise equivalent count rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Image uniformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
PET SYSTEM DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
High-performance dedicated clinical PET scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Lower cost clinical PET scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Coincidence imaging on gamma cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
High-performance brain imaging systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Other human PET scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Multimodality PET imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Animal scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
General references and further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Cited references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

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