374. Modern Recording Techniques

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374. Modern Recording Techniques

 

 

CATEGORY:Music, Mastering,Mixing & Writing – 400 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 374

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….xix
CHAPTER 1 Introduction . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
The recording studio . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………3
The control room . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8
The changing faces of the music studio business . …………………………………………………….10
The project studio . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 1
The portable studio . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………13
The iRevolution . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13
Studio in the palm of your hand . ………………………………………………………………………………14
Knowledge is power! . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….14
Whatever works for you . ………………………………………………………………………………15
Making the project studio pay for itself . ……………………………………………………………………..16
Live/on-location recording: a different animal . ………………………………………………………….. 17
Audio for video and film . ……………………………………………………………………………………………….18
Audio for games . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18
The times, they’ve already changed: multimedia and the web . ………………………………….19
The people who make it all happen . …………………………………………………………………………. 20
The artist . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Studio musicians and arrangers . ……………………………………………………………………………… 20
The producer . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
The engineer . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………22
Assistant engineer . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………22
Maintenance engineer . …………………………………………………………………………………………………23
Mastering engineer . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….23
The DJ . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..23
The VJ . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..24
Studio management . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………24
Music law . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….25
Women and minorities in the industry . ………………………………………………………………………25
Behind the scenes . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….26
Career development . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………27
Self-motivation . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
Networking: “showing up is huge” . ………………………………………………………………………………28
The recording process . ………………………………………………………………………………………………..29
Preparation . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….29
Recording . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
Overdubbing . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
Mixdown . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37
Mastering . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..39
Product manufacturing . …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
Marketing and sales . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
The transducer . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
CHAPTER 2 Sound and hearing . …………………………………………………………………………………43
The basics of sound . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………43
Waveform characteristics . ………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Amplitude . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
Frequency . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….47
Velocity . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
Wavelength . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
Phase . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………51
Phase shift . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53
Harmonic content . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
Envelope . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..58
Loudness levels: the decibel . ………………………………………………………………………………………59
Logarithmic basics . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
The simple heart of the matter . ………………………………………………………………………………….63
The ear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Threshold of hearing . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
Threshold of feeling . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….65
Threshold of pain . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65
Taking care of your hearing . …………………………………………………………………………………………65
Psychoacoustics . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
Auditory perception . …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
Beats . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
Combination tones . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
Masking . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
Perception of direction . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
Perception of space . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
Direct sound . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..72
Early reflections . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………72
Reverberation . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………73
CHAPTER 3 Studio acoustics and design . ………………………………………………………………….75
Studio types . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..76
The professional recording studio . ………………………………………………………………………………76
The audio-for-visual production environment . ……………………………………………………………77
The project studio . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..78
Primary factors governing studio and control room acoustics . ………………………………. 80
Acoustic isolation . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
Symmetry in control room design . ………………………………………………………………………………92
Frequency balance . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
Room reflections and acoustic reverberation . ………………………………………………………… 106
Acoustic echo chambers . ……………………………………………………………………………………… 107
CHAPTER 4 Microphones: design and application . ……………………………………………… 109
The microphone: an introduction . …………………………………………………………………………… 109
Microphone design . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….110
The dynamic microphone . …………………………………………………………………………………………..110
The ribbon microphone . …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
The condenser microphone . ………………………………………………………………………………………..113
Microphone characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Directional response . ……………………………………………………………………………………………..116
Frequency response . ……………………………………………………………………………………………..121
Transient response . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….123
Output characteristics . ……………………………………………………………………………………………….124
Microphone preamps . ………………………………………………………………………………………………..128
Microphone techniques . …………………………………………………………………………………………….129
Pickup characteristics as a function of working distance . ……………………………………….130
Stereo miking techniques . …………………………………………………………………………………………..139
Surround miking techniques . ……………………………………………………………………………………..142
Microphone placement techniques . ………………………………………………………………………….145
Brass instruments . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………147
Guitar . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………149
Keyboard instruments . ……………………………………………………………………………………………….152
Percussion . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..155
Stringed instruments . …………………………………………………………………………………………………163
Voice . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..165
Woodwind instruments . ……………………………………………………………………………………………..166
Microphone selection . ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
Shure SM57 . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
AKG D112 . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………169
Beyerdynamic M160 . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..170
AEA A440 . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
Royer labs R-121 . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….172
Neumann KM 180 Series . ……………………………………………………………………………………………….173
A K G C 2 1 4 . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..174
Neumann TLM 102 . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….175
Telefunken U47, C12, and ELA M251E . …………………………………………………………………………175
Sontronics Apollo stereo ribbon microphone . ………………………………………………………………176
CHAPTER 5 The analog tape recorder . ……………………………………………………………………179
To 2-inch or not to 2-inch? . ………………………………………………………………………………………..179
Magnetic recording and its media . …………………………………………………………………………. 180
The professional analog ATR . …………………………………………………………………………………..182
The tape transport . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………182
The magnetic tape head . …………………………………………………………………………………………..185
Equalization . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..187
Bias current . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
Monitoring modes . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 188
To punch or not to punch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Tape, tape speed and head configurations . ………………………………………………………………191
Print-through . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………192
Analog tape noise . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..193
Cleanliness . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………195
Degaussing . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..195
Backup and archive strategies . …………………………………………………………………………………195
Backing up your project . ………………………………………………………………………………………………..195
Archive strategies . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..196
C.L.A.S.P. . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….196
Tape emulation plug-ins . …………………………………………………………………………………………………197
CHAPTER 6 Digital audio technology . …………………………………………………………………….199
The language of digital . …………………………………………………………………………………………….199
Digital basics . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….200
Sampling . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 201
Quantization . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
The devil’s in the details . …………………………………………………………………………………………..205
Fixed- vs floating-point processing . ………………………………………………………………………..209
The digital recording/reproduction process . ……………………………………………………………209
The recording process . ………………………………………………………………………………………………209
The playback process . ………………………………………………………………………………………………..211
Sound file sample rates . ……………………………………………………………………………………………212
Sound file bit rates . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….213
Regarding digital audio levels . ……………………………………………………………………………………214
Digital audio transmission . …………………………………………………………………………………………214
Signal distribution . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………219
What is jitter? . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….220
Wordclock . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222
Digital audio recording systems . …………………………………………………………………………….. 224
Samplers . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
Hard-disk recording . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 226
Hard-disk multitrack recorders . ………………………………………………………………………………….. 226
Portable studios . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
Flash memory handhelds . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 227
Older technologies . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 228
CHAPTER 7 The digital audio workstation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Integration now … integration forever! . ………………………………………………………………….. 233
DAW Hardware . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236
The desktop computer . …………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
The laptop computer . ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 239
The iOS and pad generation . …………………………………………………………………………………… 242
Accessories and accessorize . …………………………………………………………………………………… 243
System interconnectivity . ………………………………………………………………………………………….244
USB . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………244
Fire Wire . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………246
Thunderbolt . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………246
Networking . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..246
The audio interface . …………………………………………………………………………………………………..248
Audio driver protocols . ………………………………………………………………………………………………250
Latency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
DAW controllers . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………251
Sound file formats . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 254
Format interchange and compatibility . …………………………………………………………………… 255
Sound file sample and bit rates . ……………………………………………………………………………… 256
DAW software . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 256
Sound file recording, editing, region definition and placement . ……………………………. 258
MIDI sequencing and scoring . …………………………………………………………………………………. 266
Real-time, on-screen mixing . …………………………………………………………………………………….268
Mixdown and effects automation . ………………………………………………………………………….. 277
Power to the processor … uhhh, people! . ………………………………………………………………..280
Get a computer that’s powerful enough . ……………………………………………………………..280
Make sure you have enough memory . ………………………………………………………………..280
Keep your production media separate . …………………………………………………………………281
Update your drivers! . …………………………………………………………………………………………….281
Going at least dual monitor . ………………………………………………………………………………………… 282
Keeping your computer quiet . ……………………………………………………………………………………… 283
Backup and archive strategies . ……………………………………………………………………………………. 283
Session documentation . ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 285
In closing . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 287
CHAPTER 8 Groove tools and techniques . ……………………………………………………………..289
The Basics . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..289
Warping . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..291
Beat slicing . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 292
Looping your DAW . …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 292
Groove and loop systems . ………………………………………………………………………………………..294
Loop-based audio software . …………………………………………………………………………………………294
ReWire . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..300
Groove and loop-based plug-ins . …………………………………………………………………………………..301
Groove and loop dedicated hardware controllers . …………………………………………………….. 302
Drum and drum loop plug-ins . ……………………………………………………………………………………… 302
Pulling loops into a DAW session . ………………………………………………………………………………. 305
DJ Software . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 305
Obtaining loop files from the great digital wellspring . ………………………………………………. 305
CHAPTER 9 MIDI and electronic music technology . ……………………………………………..309
MIDI production environments . …………………………………………………………………………………310
What is MIDI? . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….312
What MIDI isn’t . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..313
System interconnections . ……………………………………………………………………………………………314
The MIDI cable . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….315
MIDI phantom power . ………………………………………………………………………………………………..316
Wireless MIDI . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….317
MIDI Jacks . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………318
MIDI Echo . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..319
Typical configurations . ………………………………………………………………………………………………..319
The daisy chain . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 320
The multiport network . ………………………………………………………………………………………………321
iConnections . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….321
Exploring the spec . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 322
The MIDI message . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 322
MIDI channels . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 324
MIDI modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Channel voice messages . …………………………………………………………………………………………. 327
Explanation of controller ID parameters . ………………………………………………………………… 330
System messages . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………331
System-exclusive messages . …………………………………………………………………………………… 335
MIDI and the computer . …………………………………………………………………………………………….337
Connecting to the peripheral world . …………………………………………………………………………337
The MIDI interface . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 338
Electronic instruments . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 339
Inside the toys . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 339
Instrument plug-ins . ……………………………………………………………………………………………..340
Keyboards . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………341
Sample DVDs and the web . ………………………………………………………………………………… 346
The MIDI keyboard controller . …………………………………………………………………………………. 347
Percussion . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………348
Sequencing . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 352
Integrated workstation sequencers . ………………………………………………………………………. 352
Software sequencers . ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 353
Basic introduction to sequencing . ………………………………………………………………………….. 354
Recording . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 354
Setting the session tempo . ………………………………………………………………………………………. 355
Changing tempo . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 355
Click track . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 355
Multiple track recording . …………………………………………………………………………………………. 356
Punching in and out . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 356
Step time entry . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 357
Saving your MIDI files . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 358
Editing . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 359
Practical editing techniques . …………………………………………………………………………………….360
Editing controller values . ……………………………………………………………………………………………361
Playback . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 363
Mixing a sequence . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 363
Transferring MIDI to audio tracks . …………………………………………………………………………… 364
Music printing programs . ………………………………………………………………………………………… 365
CHAPTER 10 Multimedia and the Web . ………………………………………………………………….. 369
The multimedia environment . ………………………………………………………………………………….. 370
The cell phone, handy or whatever you want to call it . ………………………………………….. 370
The computer . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 370
Television and the home theater . ……………………………………………………………………………. 370
Delivery media . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..371
Neworking . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..371
The Web . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………371
The Cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Physical media . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 373
The flash memory card . …………………………………………………………………………………………… 373
The CD . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 373
The DVD . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 373
Blu-ray . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 375
Delivery formats . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 375
Digital audio . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 376
Uncompressed soundfile formats . …………………………………………………………………………….377
Compressed codec soundfile formats . ………………………………………………………………………377
Perceptual coding . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………377
MP3 . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 379
MP4 . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 379
WMA . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….380
A A C . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………380
FLAC . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..381
Tagged metadata . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………381
MIDI . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 382
Standard MIDI files . ……………………………………………………………………………………………..384
General MIDI . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..384
Graphics . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 385
Desktop video . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 388
Multimedia and the web in the “need for speed” era . ……………………………………………. 389
Thoughts on being (and getting heard) in cyberspace . ………………………………………… 389
Uploading to stardom! . …………………………………………………………………………………………..390
Selling your wares . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….391
Internet radio . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 392
On a final note . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 392
CHAPTER 11 Synchronization . ………………………………………………………………………………… 393
Timecode . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 394
Timecode word . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 395
Sync information data . …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 396
Timecode frame standards . …………………………………………………………………………………….. 396
Timecode within digital media production . ……………………………………………………………… 399
Broadcast wave file format . ………………………………………………………………………………… 399
MIDI timecode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
MIDI timecode messages . …………………………………………………………………………………………400
SMPTE/MTC conversion . ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 401
Timecode production in the analog audio and video worlds . …………………………………402
Timecode refresh and jam sync . ……………………………………………………………………………….403
Synchronization using SMPTE timecode . ……………………………………………………………….404
Real-world sync applications for using timecode and MIDI timecode . ………………….406
Master/slave relationship . ……………………………………………………………………………………………..406
Video’s need for a stable timing reference . …………………………………………………………………..407
Digital audio’s need for a stable timing reference . ………………………………………………………408
Video workstation or recorder . …………………………………………………………………………………….408
Digital audio workstations . ……………………………………………………………………………………………408
Routing timecode to and from your computer . ……………………………………………………………409
Analog audio recorders . …………………………………………………………………………………………………409
A simple caveat . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 410
Keeping out of trouble . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 410
CHAPTER 12 Amplifiers . …………………………………………………………………………………………….413
Amplification . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………413
The operational amplifier . ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 416
Preamplifiers . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 416
Equalizers . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 416
Summing amplifiers . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..417
Distribution amplifiers . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 418
Power amplifiers . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 418
Voltage- and digitally controlled amplifiers . …………………………………………………………………420
CHAPTER 13 Power- and ground-related issues . …………………………………………………… 421
Grounding considerations . ………………………………………………………………………………………. 421
Power conditioning . …………………………………………………………………………………………………..422
Multiple-phase power . ………………………………………………………………………………………… 423
Balanced power . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 423
CHAPTER 14 The art and technology of mixing . …………………………………………………….. 425
The recording process . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 427
Recording . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 427
Overdubbing . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….431
Mixdown . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..431
Understanding the underlying concept of “the mixing surface” . …………………………… 432
Channel input . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….434
Auxiliary send section . ………………………………………………………………………………………………440
Equalization . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 441
Dynamics section . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..443
Monitor section . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………443
Channel fader . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………448
Output section . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..449
Channel assignment . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….450
Grouping . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………451
Monitor level section . ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 453
Patch bay . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..454
Metering . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 455
Digital console and DAW mixer/controller technology . ………………………………………….460
The virtual input strip . …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 461
The DAW software mixer surface . ………………………………………………………………………….. 463
Mixdown level and effects automation . …………………………………………………………………..464
Write mode . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..465
Read mode . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 467
Drawn (rubberband) automation . ……………………………………………………………………………. 467
Mixing and balancing basics . ……………………………………………………………………………………. 467
Need more inputs? . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 470
A final footnote on the art of mixing . ……………………………………………………………………………..471
CHAPTER 15 Signal processing . ………………………………………………………………………………. 473
The wonderful world of analog, digital or whatever . ……………………………………………. 473
Plug-ins . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 475
Plug-in control and automation . …………………………………………………………………………. 475
Signal paths in effects processing . …………………………………………………………………………. 475
Insert routing . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 476
Send routing . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 479
Viva la difference . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 479
Effect processing . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..480
Hardware and virtual effects in action . …………………………………………………………………….482
Peaking filters . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….484
Shelving filters . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..486
High-pass and low-pass filters . …………………………………………………………………………………486
Equalizer types . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 487
Applying equalization . ………………………………………………………………………………………………489
EQ in action! . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..489
Sound-shaping effects plug-ins . ………………………………………………………………………………492
Dynamic range . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….492
Dynamic range processors . ………………………………………………………………………………….494
Compression . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 495
Multiband compression . ………………………………………………………………………………………. 501
Limiting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Expansion . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….504
The noise gate . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………504
Time-based effects . …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 505
Delay . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………506
Reverb . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………509
Psychoacoustic enhancement . ……………………………………………………………………………………….511
Pitch shifting . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….512
Time and pitch changes . …………………………………………………………………………………………………513
Automatic pitch correction . ……………………………………………………………………………………………514
Multiple-effects devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .514
Dynamic effects automation and editing . ………………………………………………………………………515
CHAPTER 16 Noise reduction . …………………………………………………………………………………….517
Digital noise reduction . ……………………………………………………………………………………………….517
Fast Fourier transform . ………………………………………………………………………………………….518
Restoration . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….520
Single-ended noise-reduction process . ……………………………………………………………………..521
The noise gate . …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 522
CHAPTER 17 Monitoring . ………………………………………………………………………………………… 523
Speaker and room considerations . …………………………………………………………………………. 523
Monitor speaker types . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 525
Far-field monitoring . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 525
Near-field monitoring . …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 526
Small speakers . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 527
Headphones . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 528
Your car . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 530
Speaker design . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 530
Crossover networks . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 530
Actively powered vs. passive speaker design . ……………………………………………………….. 532
Speaker polarity . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 534
Balancing speaker levels . ………………………………………………………………………………………… 535
Monitoring . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 536
Monitor volume . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….537
The big bad bottom end . ……………………………………………………………………………………………537
Monitoring configurations . ………………………………………………………………………………………. 539
Mono . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….540
Stereo . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..540
Stereo+sub . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………541
Quad . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..541
Surround minus an LFE . …………………………………………………………………………………………. 542
Surround with an LFE . …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 542
Theater plus an LFE . ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 542
Height channels . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 542
Monitor level control . ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 543
Spectral reference . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 543
Monitoring in the studio . ………………………………………………………………………………………… 545
Headphones in the studio . ………………………………………………………………………………….. 545
Playback speakers in the studio . ……………………………………………………………………….. 545
CHAPTER 18 Surround sound . ………………………………………………………………………………… 547
Surround sound: past to the present . ……………………………………………………………………..548
Stereo comes to television . ………………………………………………………………………………… 549
Theaters hit home . ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 549
Surround in the not-too-distant future . ………………………………………………………………… 550
Monitoring in 5.1 surround . ……………………………………………………………………………………… 550
Speaker placement and setup . ………………………………………………………………………………….551
Practical placement . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 553
Active/passive monitors in surround . ……………………………………………………………………… 554
Surround interfacing . ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 554
Surround final mastering and delivery formats . …………………………………………………….. 555
Dolby digital (AC3) . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 555
FLAC . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 558
MP4 . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 558
WMA . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 558
Up-mix to 5.1 . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 558
Mixing in surround . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 559
Surround mixers . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 559
Reissuing back catalog material . ……………………………………………………………………………………561
CHAPTER 19 Mastering . ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 563
The mastering process . ……………………………………………………………………………………………..564
To master or not to master—was that the question? . ……………………………………….. 565
To master or not to master the project yourself—
that’s the next question! . ……………………………………………………………………………………… 567
“Pre”paration . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 567
Mastering the details of a project . ……………………………………………………………………… 568
Sequencing: the natural order of things . ……………………………………………………………. 568
Digital sequence editing . ……………………………………………………………………………………… 569
Analog sequence editing . ……………………………………………………………………………………. 570
Relative volumes . …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 570
EQ and mastering control . …………………………………………………………………………………….571
Dynamics . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 572
Multiband dynamic processing . …………………………………………………………………………… 573
Soundfile volume . ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 574
Soundfile resolution . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 574
Dither . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 574
The digital audio editor in the mastering process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
On a final note . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 576
CHAPTER 20 Product manufacture . ……………………………………………………………………….. 577
Downloadable media . ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 578
Hi-res downloads . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 578
Music streaming . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 579
Physical media . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 579
The CD . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 579
The process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581
CD burning . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 585
Rolling your own . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 587
DVD and Blu-ray burning . ………………………………………………………………………………………….588
Disc handling and care . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 589
Disc labeling . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….590
Vinyl disc manufacture . ……………………………………………………………………………………………..590
Disc cutting . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………590
Recording discs . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 594
The mastering process . ………………………………………………………………………………………. 594
Vinyl disc plating and pressing . …………………………………………………………………………… 596
CHAPTER 21 Studio tips and tricks . ……………………………………………………………………….. 597
Preparation and the details . ……………………………………………………………………………………. 597
What’s a producer and when do you need one? . ………………………………………………………… 598
Do you need a music lawyer? . ……………………………………………………………………………………… 599
Long before going into the studio . ………………………………………………………………………………600
Before going into the studio . ………………………………………………………………………………………. 601
Setting up . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………603
Session documentation . ………………………………………………………………………………………………..603
Recording . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………604
Mixdown . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..606
Backup and archive strategies . ……………………………………………………………………………………606
Household tips . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 607
Musicians’ tools . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………608
Record your own concerts and practices . …………………………………………………………………….609
Protect your investment . ………………………………………………………………………………………………609
Protect your hardware . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 610
Update your software . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 610
Read your manuals . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………611
A word on professionalism . …………………………………………………………………………………………….611
In conclusion . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….612
CHAPTER 22 Yesterday, today and tomorrow . …………………………………………………………613
Ye s t e r d a y . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….613
To d a y . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………619
1’s and 0’s . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………620
The web . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….620
Tomorrow . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..621

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Medifit  Courses Demo Certificate 

48 hours delivery

| International acceptance | Medical based | Job oriented | Lifetime validity | Most economical |

 

555 INR Demo Certificate – 2 months duration

Demo Certificate – 6 months duration

48 hours delivery after fees payment

48 hours delivery after fees payment

 

Medifit 48 hours Delivery

  Get your Certificates delivered by online mode in 48 hours after Fees payment. We try to deliver certificates in 24 hours, but the committed delivery hours are 48. Its,

Pay Today &
get Tomorrow

procedure, only by Medifit.

LIFETIME VALIDITY

Medifit issues Lifetime validity certificates for all Online Courses provided. No need to renew the certificates every 2 or 3 years. All Courses Certificates of Medifit are having Lifetime Validity. No need to renew these certificates every 2 or 3 years.

 

What makes the certificates of Medifit to get it recognized Internationally?

Vast number of students applying for Job in international market of Fitness through Medifits Online Courses Certificates. And most importantly, the Medical standards maintained, helps to acquire jobs internationally. This gives very strong International acceptance to Certificates of Medifit Courses.

 

ABOUT MEDIFIT ACADEMY CERTIFICATION COURSE:

Medifit Education Online Academy is an innovative, digital and engaging education platform that delivers fast track accredited courses and skills development courses instantly online, with no time limits, enabling individuals to study anywhere and anytime. We are proud to offer international standard courses that have helped our students build their careers across the globe.

HOW DO MEDIFIT ONLINE CERTIFICATE COURSES HELP?

Short term Professional Courses International Standards courses Opens Global opportunities Career defining Courses Skill Development Programmes Knowledge in short span Learn at your own pace Certification of Completion Immediate Earning Opportunities Positive Social Impact Optimistic Psychological Benefits Improved Standard of Living Study from anywhere & anytime Very Economical Fees