32. Medical Biochemistry

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32. Medical Biochemistry

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 32

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
Solomon Adugna and Lakshmi Ahuja
Unit One: Enzymes ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
Henok Tekola
Principles and classifications of Enzymes …………………………………………………. 5
Mechanism action of Enzymes ………………………………………………………………………. 7
Enzyme Inhibition …………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Regulation of Enzyme activity ………………………………………………………………… 18
Enzymes in clinical diagnosis …………………………………………………………………. 19
Unit Two: Carbohydrate Metabolism …………………………………………………………………………. 23
Belayhun Kibret
Chemistry of Carbohydrates …………………………………………………………………….. 23
Functions of Carbohydrates ……………………………………………………………………… 31
Digestion and absorption of Carbohydrates ………………………………………………… 33
Glycolysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
Glycogen Metabolism ………………………………………………………………………………. 42
Glycogen storage diseases ………………………………………………………………………. 45
Pentose phosphate pathway …………………………………………………………………….. 46
The Cori – cycle ………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
Gluconeogenesis ……………………………………………………………………………………. 49
Unit Three: Integrative Metabolism Bioenergetics ………………………………………………………. 54
Tsehayneh Kelemu
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
Structural basis of high energy phosphate …………………………………………………. 55
Formation and utilization of ATP ……………………………………………………………….. 56
Catabolism of fuel molecules ……………………………………………………………………. 56
Concept of Free energy …………………………………………………………………………… 58
Oxidation-reduction reactions …………………………………………………………………… 58
Aerobic energy generation ……………………………………………………………………….. 61
Kreb’s cycle ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
Function and regulation of kreb’s cycle ……………………………………………………… 70

Electron transport system and oxidative Phosphorylation …………………………….. 71
Respiratory control ………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
Uncouplers …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
Respiratory poisons ………………………………………………………………………………… 78
Unit Four: Lipid Metabolism …………………………………………………………………………………. 80
Solomon Genet
Classification of Lipids …………………………………………………………………………….. 80
Types of Lipids ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
Digestion and absorption of Lipids …………………………………………………………….. 86
Metabolism of Fatty acids and Triacyl Glycerols …………………………………………. 88
β-Oxidation of Fatty acids ………………………………………………………………………… 90
Metabolism of Ketone bodies ……………………………………………………………………. 93
Biosynthesis of Fatty acids and triacyl glycerols ………………………………………….. 97
Cholesterol Metabolism …………………………………………………………………………… 99
Atherosclerosis ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
Hypercholesterolemic drugs …………………………………………………………………….. 101
Lipid storage diseases …………………………………………………………………………….. 102
Fatty Liver ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 102
Lipoproteins ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
Chemical compositions of Membranes ……………………………………………………….. 104
Unit Five: Amino acids and Proteins ………………………………………………………………………… 105
Solomon Adugna

Classification of amino acids …………………………………………………………………….. 106
Properties of amino acids ………………………………………………………………………… 115
Peptides ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
Glutathione synthesis ………………………………………………………………………………. 121
Proteins …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
Classifications of proteins ………………………………………………………………………… 124
Levels of organization of proteins ……………………………………………………………… 126
Denaturation of proteins …………………………………………………………………………… 131
Hemoglobin and Myoglobin ……………………………………………………………………… 135
Sickle cell Hemoglobin …………………………………………………………………………….. 136
Sickle cell disease, Sickle cell trait ……………………………………………………………… 136
Digestion and absorption of proteins …………………………………………………………. 137
Amino acid catabolism …………………………………………………………………………….. 141
Nitrogen balance, excretion and the urea cycle ……………………………………………. 144

Defects in the urea cycle …………………………………………………………………………… 150
The Glucose – Alanine cycle ……………………………………………………………………… 151
Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism ………………………………………………………. 152
Amino acid derived nitrogenous compounds ……………………………………………….. 154
Clinical problems ……………………………………………………………………………………… 159
Unit Six: Vitamins and Coenzymes ………………………………………………………………….. ……… 161
Solomon Adugna
Water soluble vitamins …………………………………………………………………….. ……… 161
Chemistry, sources, function and deficiency of:
Thamine ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……… 161
Riboflavin ………………………………………………………………………………………. ……… 163
Niacin ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……… 164
Pyridoxine ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……… 165
Biotin …………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 166
Cobalamin ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……… 167
Folic acid ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 169
Panthothenic acid ……………………………………………………………………………. ……… 170
Ascorbic acid ………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 171
Fat soluble vitamins ……………………………………………………………………….. ……… 172
Chemistry, Sources, function, deficiency and Hypervitaminosis of:
Vitamin A ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 173
Vitamin D ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 177
Vitamin E ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 179
Vitamin K ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 181
Unit Seven: Miniral Metabolism ………………………………………………………………………. ……… 183
Lakshmi Ahuja

Mineral ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 183
Sodium and potassium ……………………………………………………………………. ……… 183
Calcium and Phosphate …………………………………………………………………… ……… 184
Trace elements ………………………………………………………………………………. ……… 185
Iron ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 185
Copper ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 187
Magnesium …………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 188
Flourine …………………………………………………………………………………………. ……… 188
Iodine ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……… 189
Zinc ………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……… 189

Selenium ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 191
Unit Eight: Hormones …………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 193
Lakshmi Ahuja
Definition and classification ………………………………………………………………. ……… 194
Biosynthesis, storage, transport ………………………………………………………… ……… 196
Mechanism of action of steroid hormones ………………………………………….. ……… 197
Mechanism of action of protein hormones ………………………………………….. ……… 198
Receptors and diseases …………………………………………………………………… ……… 202
Second messengers ………………………………………………………………………… ……… 203
Insulin synthesis, secretion and metabolic role ……………………………………. ……… 205
Diabetes mellitus …………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 209
Symptoms and complications of DM. …………………………………………………. ……… 210
Glucagon ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 211
Clinical aspects ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 212
Thyroxin …………………………………………………………………………………………. ……… 213
Synthesis and Metabolism ……………………………………………………………….. ……… 213
Hypo and Hyper Thyroidism ……………………………………………………………… ……… 214
Goiter …………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 215
Catecholamines ………………………………………………………………………………. ……… 216
Pheochromocytoma…………………………………………………………………………. ……… 217
Case Histories ………………………………………………………………………………… ……… 217
Unit Nine: Molecular Genetics …………………………………………………………………………. ……… 220
Mekonnen Alemu

Structure of Nucleic acids …………………………………………………………………. ……… 220
Types of Nucleic acids …………………………………………………………………….. ……… 226
Replication of DNA ………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 230
DNA Damage and repair mechanism ………………………………………………… ……… 231
RNA synthesis ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 233
Post transcriptional Modifications ………………………………………………………. ……… 236
Translation/Protein synthesis ……………………………………………………………. ……… 240
Regulation of protein synthesis …………………………………………………………. ……… 242
The Genetic code ……………………………………………………………………………. ……… 243
Post translational processes …………………………………………………………….. ……… 244
Glossary ……. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 246
Reference …. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……… 253

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