32.Identification of Aroma Chemicals

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32.Identification of Aroma Chemicals

 

 

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Syllabus

Contributors xi
Preface xiii
1 Introduction David J. Rowe 1
1.1 History: in the beginning 1
1.2 The classical world 1
1.3 The mediaeval world 2
1.4 From the Renaissance to the Enlightment 3
1.5 The industrial age 3
1.6 The post-war world 5
1.6.1 Technical factors 5
1.6.2 Social factors 5
1.7 The future 7
1.8 The structure of the flavour and fragrance industry 7
1.9 A note on regulations 8
1.10 A note on quality 9
References 11
2 Identification of Aroma Chemicals Neil C. Da Costa and Sanja Eri 12
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Isolation of aroma chemicals 12
2.2.1 Solvent extraction 13
2.2.2 Steam distillation methods 18
2.2.3 Headspace techniques 20
2.2.4 Direct thermal desorption (DTD) 22
2.2.5 Sorptive techniques 23
2.3 Gas chromatography-olfactometry 25
2.4 Techniques for identification of aroma compounds 26
2.5 A case study: Generessence® 27
2.5.1 Sample preparation 27
2.5.2 Valencia orange 28
2.5.3 Roast chicken 29
2.5.4 Narcissus 30
2.5.5 Post-analysis work 31
References 31
3 Flavor Generation in Food Liam O’Hare and John Grigor 35
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 Taste and aroma 35
3.3 Cooked meat 35
3.3.1 Flavour precursors 36
3.3.2 Influence of method of cooking 42
3.4 Cheese 44
3.4.1 Lactose and citrate fermentation 45
3.4.2 Protein degradation 47
3.4.3 Lipid degradation 50
Acknowledgements 52
References 52
4 Aroma Chemicals I: C, H, O Compounds David J. Rowe 56
4.1 Introduction 56
4.2 Alcohols 56
4.2.1 Saturated alkyl alcohols 56
4.2.2 Unsaturated alkyl alcohols 57
4.2.3 Complex fragrance alcohols 58
4.2.4 Aromatic and aralkyl alcohols 59
4.2.5 Phenolics 60
4.3 Acids 61
4.3.1 Saturated aliphatic acids 61
4.3.2 Unsaturated acids 62
4.3.3 Aromatic acids 62
4.4 Esters 63
4.4.1 Saturated esters 63
4.4.2 Unsaturated esters 64
4.4.3 Aromatic esters 65
4.4.4 Lactones – gamma and delta 66
4.4.5 Synthesis of esters 68
4.5 Aldehydes 69
4.5.1 Aliphatic aldehydes 69
4.5.2 Unsaturated aldehydes 70
4.5.3 Acetals 72
4.5.4 Aromatics 73
4.5.5 Nitriles 78
4.6 Ketones 78
4.6.1 Carotenoids, ionones, irones, damascones and related
compounds 80
4.7 Hydrocarbons 82

Acknowledgements 83
References 83
5 Aroma Chemicals II: Heterocycles Michael Zviely 85
5.1 Introduction 85
5.2 Introduction to heterocyclic compounds 85
5.2.1 Terminology of heterocycles 86
5.2.2 Non-aromatic heterocyclic compounds 87
5.3 Oxygen-containing heterocyclic aroma chemicals 88
5.4 Heterocyclic compounds containing nitrogen and/or sulfur 99
References 114
6 Aroma Chemicals III: Sulfur Compounds Simon B. Jameson 116
6.1 Thiols and thioesters 120
6.2 Acyclic sulfides and polysulfides 128
6.3 Saturated heterocyclic sulfur compounds 131
6.4 Quality and stability 135
Acknowledgements 140
References 140
Bibliography 141
Websites 142
7 Aroma Chemicals IV: Musks Philip Kraft 143
7.1 Introduction 143
7.2 Natural musks 145
7.3 Nitro musks 150
7.4 PCM – Polycyclic aromatic musks 152
7.5 Evolution of the industrial synthesis of macrocycles 155
7.6 Modern macrocyclic musks 159
7.7 New musk structures 162
Acknowledgements 165
References 165
8 Aroma Chemicals V: Natural Aroma Chemicals John Margetts 169
8.1 Introduction 169
8.2 The natural concept 169
8.3 Chirality 171
8.4 Isolation from natural sources such as essential oils 171
8.5 Biotechnology 177
8.6 Total flavour enhancement 178
8.7 Individual flavour chemicals 179
8.7.1 Alcohols 179
8.7.2 Carbonyls 180
8.7.3 Acids 182
8.7.4 Lactones 183
8.7.5 Esters 184
8.7.6 Green notes 186
8.7.7 Pyrazines 186
8.7.8 Sulfur compounds 187
8.7.9 Terpenoid and related compounds 189
8.7.10 Vanillin 192
8.7.11 Precursors 192
8.8 Soft chemistry 193
8.9 Conclusion 196
References 197
9 Molecules of Taste and Sensation Mark L. Dewis 199
9.1 Introduction 199
9.2 The trigeminal nerve system, taste and oral receptors 200
9.2.1 The trigeminal nerve 200
9.2.2 Gustation 202
9.2.3 Oral receptors 202
9.3 Chemesthesis 204
9.4 ‘Sensates’ – compounds which provide a sensory effect 204
9.4.1 Tingle compounds 205
9.4.2 Cooling compounds 212
9.4.3 Pungent, warming and hot irritants 223
9.4.4 Astringency 227
9.4.5 Synergies 227
9.4.6 Closing comments on compounds which provide
a sensory effect 228
9.5 Taste-active compounds 229
9.5.1 Sweeteners 229
9.5.2 Salt and enhancers 235
9.5.3 Sour agents 236
9.5.4 Bitter agents 236
9.5.5 Umami the fifth taste quality 237
9.6 Conclusions 239
References 239
10 Stability of Aroma Chemicals Chris Winkel 244
10.1 Introduction 244
10.2 Flavour stability 245
10.3 Flavour precursors 248
10.4 Encapsulation 249
10.5 Analogues 251
10.6 Case study 1: citral and vanillin stability in milk-based
products 251

10.7 Case study 2: stability of thiols in an aqueous process
flavouring 252
10.8 Stability and fragrance applications 258
10.9 Conclusion 259
References 259
11 Rational Odorant Design Luca Turin 261
11.1 Introduction 261
11.2 Theories of olfaction 262
11.2.1 For shape 263
11.2.2 Against shape 263
11.2.3 For vibration 265
11.2.4 Against vibration 267
11.3 Rational design by shape 267
11.3.1 Rational design by vibration 268
11.4 Replacement molecules 269
11.4.1 Acitral® 269
11.4.2 Lioral® 270
11.5 Prospects for the future 271
Acknowledgements 271
References 271
12 Applications I: Flavors David Baines and Jack Knights 274
12.1 Introduction 274
12.1.1 The early days of flavour analysis 274
12.1.2 The role of the flavourist 275
12.2 Liquid flavourings 276
12.2.1 Water-soluble liquid flavourings 276
12.2.2 Solvents for special uses 278
12.2.3 Oil-soluble liquid flavourings 279
12.2.4 Emulsion liquid flavourings 280
12.3 Powder flavours 280
12.3.1 Plating 281
12.3.2 Spray drying 282
12.3.3 Spray cooling 290
12.3.4 Yeast encapsulation 291
12.3.5 Coacervation 294
12.3.6 Melt extrusion 296
12.3.7 Molecular encapsulation 298
12.4 Formulation issues for the flavourist 300
12.4.1 Flavour creation 300
12.4.2 Influence of foodstuff to be flavoured 301
12.4.3 Influence of legislation 301
12.4.4 Influence of customer requirements 302
References 303

13 Applications II: Fragrance Stephen J. Herman 305
13.1 Introduction 305
13.2 The basic structure of fragrances 305
13.3 The simplest case: hydroalcoholics 306
13.4 Personal care applications: emulsions 308
13.5 Personal care applications: surfactants 313
13.6 Air fresheners 315
13.7 Candles 319
13.8 Reactive hair care 322
13.9 Depilatories 323
13.10 Dyes and perms 323
13.11 Bleach 324
13.12 Malodor counteractants 326
13.13 Stability testing 327
13.14 Conclusion 328
References 329
Appendix Common names David J. Rowe 330
Index 332

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