300. Training Equipment

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300. Training Equipment

CATEGORY: Fitness, Workout & Exercise 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 01

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Syllabus

Abstract i

Acknowledgements ii
Dedication iii

Table of Contents iv

List of Figures and Tables x

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Statement of purpose 3
1.3 Research question 3
1.4 Research objectives 3
1.5 Scope of research 4
1.6 Organisation of chapters 4

2 Liter ature Review 8
2.1 Introduction 8

2.1.1 Overview of gymnastics research 8
2.1.2 Overview of training aid research 9
2.2 Equipment design and engineering 10
2.2.1 Biomechanical approach to equipment design 10
2.2.2 Sports engineering and design 11
2.2.3 Material considerations 13
2.2.4 Safety considerations 14
2.2.5 Design methodology 16
2.2.6 Design processes 17
2.2.7 British Standards 19
2.3 Experimental and theoretical research 20
2.3.1 Experiment design 20
2.3.2 Error 24
2.3.3 Anthropometric data 25
2.3.4 Ethical Clearance 26
2.4 Learning, growing, and motor control 26

2.4.1 Skill acquisition 26
2.4.2 Reaction time and anticipation 28
2.4.3 Human growth 29
2.5 Chapter summary 30

3 Skill Selection and Preliminary Design Considerations 31
3.1 Introduction 31

3.1.1 Initial research of gymnastics skills 32
3.1.2 Handstand on the rings – skill information 34
3.1.3 Backward handspring – skill information 35
3.2 Requirements 35

3.3 Literature review of the chosen skills 38

3.3.1 Handstand on the rings 38
3.3.2 Backward handspring 46

3.4 Summary of requirements for a generic training aid 57
3.4.1 Design methodology 61
3.4.2 Customer requirements 61
3.4.3 Customer analysis 65
3.4.4 Quality function deployment 66
3.5 Chapter summary 69

4 Rings Handstand Analysis 70

4.1 Mechanical analysis of the handstand on rings 70
4.1.1 Introduction 70

4.1.2 Theory 71
4.1.3 Theoretical model assessment 82

4.2 Data collection 87

4.2.1 Introduction 87

4.2.2 Pre testing 87
4.2.3 Pilot study 99
4.2.4 Rings data collection 101
4.3 Data analysis 103
4.3.1 Force data 104
4.3.2 Displacement data 105
4.3.3 EMG data 108

4.3.4 Summary and design considerations 110

5 Rings Handstand Training Aid Design and Manufacture 112
5.1 Introduction 112

5.2 Design path for a rings handstand training aid 112
5.3 Requirement tree and product design specification 114
5.4 Design process 114
5.4.1 Design data from testing 114

5.4.2 Preliminary design concepts 115
5.4.3 Analysing conceptual work 115
5.5 Design calculations 118
5.5.1 Linear guide specification 118
5.5.2 Linear guide calculations 119
5.5.3 Top foam calculations and testing 121

5.6 Detailed design 124
5.6.1 Complete concept 124
5.6.2 Failure analysis 128
5.6.3 British Standards requirements 131
5.6.4 Final design 131

5.7 Chapter summary 132

6 Handstand Training Aid Analysis 133

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Safety testing 133
6.2.1 British Standards safety testing 133
6.2.2 Further safety testing 135
6.2.3 Risk assessment 135

6.3 Data collection 139
6.3.1 Experimental set up 140
6.3.2 Rings and training aid data collection 144

6.4 Data analysis –

handstand comparison 147
6.4.1 Muscle data 147

6.4.2 Handstand comparison –

EMG results 147
6.4.3 Force and strain data 153

6.4.4 Handstand comparison –

force results 155

6.4.5 Motion analysis data 156
6.4.6 Handstand comparison – motion analysis results 157
6.4.7 Summary of comparison 162
6.5 Training aid details 163

6.5.1 The handstand swing 163
6.5.2 The handstand bowls 163

6.5.3 The handstand rails 164

6.6 Data analysis – training aid comparison 165
6.6.1 Muscle data 165

6.6.2 Training aid comparison –

EMG results 166

6.6.3 Force data 170

6.6.4 Training aid comparison –

force results 170

6.6.5 Motion analysis data 173
6.6.6 Training aid comparison – motion analysis results 174
6.6.7 Summary of Comparison 184
6.6.8 Coach and gymnast feedback 185
6.7 Chapter summary 186

7 Back ward Handspring Analysis 188
7.1 Mechanical analysis of the backward handspring 188
7.1.1 Introduction 188

7.1.2 Theory 188

7.2 Data collection 194

7.2.1 Introduction 194

7.2.2 Pre-testing 195
7.2.3 Pilot study 197
7.2.4 Backward handspring data collection 200

7.3 Data analysis 202
7.3.1 Statistical analysis of hypothesised relationships 202
7.3.2 Design considerations 205

8 Backward Handspring Training Aid Design and Manufacture 206
8.1 Introduction 206
8.2 Design path for a backward handspring training aid 206
8.3 Product design specification 208

8.4 Design process 208
8.4.1 Design data from testing 208
8.4.2 Preliminary design concepts 211
8.4.3 Design considerations 214
8.4.4 Considering the free volume 215
8.5 Detailed design 218
8.5.1 The metal structure 218
8.5.2 The support section and upright column 221
8.5.3 Failure analysis 227
8.5.4 Design of the seat section and post padding 235
8.5.5 British Standards requirements 236
8.5.6 Final design 236
8.6 Chapter summary 237

9 Backward handspring Training Aid Analysis 238
9.1 Introduction 238

9.2 Safety testing 238
9.2.1 British Standards safety testing 238
9.2.2 Further impact and stability testing 240
9.2.3 Primary collision analysis 243
9.2.4 Risk assessment 243
9.2.5 Initial gymnast – equipment interface analysis 248
9.3 Pilot study 248
9.3.1 Vicon data collection 248

9.4 Data collection 250
9.4.1 Further collision analysis 250
9.4.2 Gymnast skill-preparation analysis 251
9.4.3 Main testing 251
9.5 Data analysis 252
9.5.1 Methodology 252
9.5.2 Performance parameter comparisons 253
9.5.3 Joint angle comparisons 254
9.5.4 Discussion of results 255
9.5.5 Conclusion of findings 258
9.5.6 Gymnast and coach feedback 259

9.5.7 Design modifications 261

9.6 Individual learning experience 263
9.6.1 Skill improvement 263

9.6.2 Skill learnt on the training aid 265
9.7 Chapter summary 266

10 Summary and Conclusion 267

10.1 Introduction 267

10.2 Summary of evidence 267

10.3 Limitations and progressive developments 275
10.4 Relevance and justification 275

10.5 Further research 276

10.6 Conclusion 278

References 279

Bibliography 294

Appendices 299

A: 3-Dimensional model drawings of the training aids 300
B: Full requirement trees for the training aids 306
C: Product design specifications of the training aids 311
D: Model of a handstand on a frictionless surface (Chapter 4) 320
E: Joint centre data for handstand trials (Chapter 6) 331

F: Correlation plots for performance parameters (Chapter 7) 337
G: Backward handspring data (Chapter 9) 341

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