27.Aroma Compounds

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27.Aroma Compounds

 

 

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Syllabus

Chapter 1.0: Introduction 1

Chapter 2.0: Literature review 7

2.1 Rice 7
2.1.1 Rice starch 8
2.1.1.1 Starch gelatinization 10
2.1.1.2 Starch retrogradation 11
2.1.1.3 Differential scanning calorimetry 13
2.1.2 Cooking of rice 14
2.1.2.1 Excess water cooking 16
2.1.2.2 Optimal water cooking 17
2.1.3 Storage of cooked rice 17
2.1.4 Flavour of rice 18
2.1.5 Starch-flavour interaction 19
2.1.5.1 Polar interaction 20
2.1.5.2 Inclusion complexes of amylose-flavour 20
2.2 Headspace analysis 22
2.3 Gas chromatography 22
2.4 Partition coefficient 24
2.5 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline 25
2.6 Pandan leaf 29
2.7 Extraction process 31
2.7.1 Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction 31
2.7.2 Solvent extraction 33
2.7.3 Extraction pre-treatment 34
2.7.3.1 Particle size pre-treatment 34
2.7.3.2 Drying pre-treatment 35

Chapter 3.0: Materials and Methods 36

3.1 Extraction of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline from Pandan leaves 36
3.1.1 Materials 36
3.1.2 Determination of moisture content of Pandan leaves 37
3.1.3 Extraction pre-treatment 38
3.1.4 Scanning electron microscopy 38
3.1.5 Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction 39
3.1.5.1 Modification of SC-CO2 collector system 42
3.1.6 Hexane extraction 44

3.1.7 Determination of total yield of Pandan leaves extracts 46
3.1.8 Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector 46
3.1.9 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 47
3.1.10 Quantitative analysis 48
3.2 Absorption of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline during cooking of rice mixed with
Pandan leaves 49
3.2.1 Materials 49
3.2.2 Determination of partition coefficient of 2-AP in water/air system 49
3.2.2.1 Phase ratio variation method 49
3.2.2.2 Determination of water/air partition coefficient 52
3.2.2.3 Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector 52
3.2.2.4 Analysis 53
3.2.3 Procedure of cooking 53
3.2.3.1 Excess water cooking 54
3.2.3.2 Optimal water cooking 56
3.2.4 Determination of moisture content of rice 56
3.2.5 Static headspace analysis 57
3.2.6 Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector 58
3.2.7 Differential scanning calorimetry 58
3.2.8 Selection of headspace analysis method 59
3.2.9 Effects of prolonged cooking time on the 2-AP under optimal water
conditions 60
3.3 Changes of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline absorption during storage of cooked rice 62
3.3.1 Materials 62
3.3.2 Determination of 2-AP amount during storage of cooked rice mixed with
different quantities of Pandan leaves 62
3.3.3 Procedure of storage 63
3.3.3.1 Storage of excess water of cooked rice 63
3.3.3.2 Storage of optimal water of cooked rice 64
3.3.4 Measurement of temperature during storage of cooked rice 64
3.3.5 Determination of moisture content during storage of cooked rice 65
3.3.6 Quantification of 2-AP concentration during storage of cooked rice 65
3.4 Statistical analysis 65

Chapter 4.0: Extraction of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline from Pandan leaves 66

4.1 Introduction 66
4.2 Results and discussion 68
4.2.1 Moisture content of Pandan leaves 68
4.2.2 Structure of Pandan leaves 69
4.2.3 Total yield of Pandan leaves extracts 72
4.2.3.1 Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction 72
4.2.3.2 Hexane extraction 75
4.2.4 Concentration of 2-AP in Pandan leaf extracts 78
4.2.4.1 Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction 80
4.2.4.2 Hexane extraction 83
4.2.5 Colour of Pandan leaf extracts 86
4.2.5.1 Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction 86
4.2.5.2 Hexane extraction 87

Chapter 5.0: Absorption of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline during cooking of rice

mixed with Pandan leaves 89

5.1 Introduction 89
5.2 Results and Discussion 91
5.2.1 Partition coefficient of 2-AP 91
5.2.2 Excess water cooking 94
5.2.2.1 Temperature and moisture content of rice during cooking 94
5.2.2.2 Absorption of 2-AP during cooking of rice 97
5.2.2.3 Amount of 2-AP in cooking water 100
5.2.2.4 Release of 2-AP from Pandan leaves 102
5.2.3 Optimal water cooking 103
5.2.3.1 Temperature and moisture content of rice during cooking 103
5.2.3.2 Absorption of 2-AP during cooking of rice 106
5.2.3.3 Gelatinization endotherms of water-rice starch 109
5.2.3.4 Effect of different distance between Pandan leaves and rice sample
on the absorption of 2-AP by rice 111
5.2.3.5 Amount of 2-AP in cooking water 112
5.2.3.6 Effect of different distance between Pandan leaves and water sample
on the amount of 2-AP in water 113
5.2.3.7 Release of 2-AP from Pandan leaves 114
5.2.4 Effect of different headspace analysis on the absorption of 2-AP by rice 116
5.2.5 Effect of prolonged cooking time on the absorption of 2-AP by rice 117

Chapter 6.0: Changes of 2-AP absorption during storage of cooked rice 120

6.1 Introduction 120
6.2 Results and discussion 121
6.2.1 Effect of quantity of Pandan leaves added during cooking on the absorption
of 2-AP during storage of cooked rice 122

6.2.2 Changes of temperature, moisture content and amount of 2-AP of excess
water cooked rice at different storage times 125
6.2.3 Changes of temperature, moisture content and amount of 2-AP of optimal
water cooked rice at different storage times 127

Chapter 7.0: Conclusions and further work 132

7.1 Introduction 132
7.2 Conclusions 133
7.2.1 Extraction of 2-AP from Pandan leaves 133
7.2.2 Absorption of 2-AP during cooking of rice mixed with Pandan leaves 134
7.2.3 Changes of 2-AP absorption during storage of cooked rice 136
7.3 Further work 137

References 141

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