269. Physical Fitness

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269. Physical Fitness

CATEGORY: Fitness, Workout & Exercise 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 01

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Syllabus

An Introduction by RADM Raymond C. Smith i
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xv
Introduction 1
Chapter 1 Overview of Physical Fitness 3
Exercise Physiology 3
Definitions and Terminology 3
Muscle Structure and Function 7
Type I Muscle Fibers 8
Type II Muscle Fibers 8
Distribution of Fiber Types 9
Principles of Physical Training 10
Overload 10
Specificity of Training 11
Individual Differences 11
Detraining 11
Determining Your Training Heart Rate 12
Energy Systems Used by Exercising Muscle 14
ATP-CP System for Speed Work 14
Lactic Acid and ATP-CP System for Anaerobic Work 15
Oxygen System for Aerobic Energy 15
Methods of Physical Training 16
Interval Training 17
Sprint Training 18
Interval Sprints 18
Acceleration Sprints 18
Fartlek or Speed Play 18
Continuous Exercise Training 18
Repetition Running 19
Conditioning and Deconditioning 19
Active Recovery 20

Chapter 2 SEAL Mission-Related Physical Activities 21
Mission-Specific Activities 22
Small Unit Patrolling 22
High Speed Boat Operations 23
Combat Swimmer Operations 24
SDV and Dry Deck Shelter Operations 25
Urban Warfare 25
Winter Warfare Operations 26
Specific Mission-Related Physical Tasks 26
Summary 30
Chapter 3 Cardiorespiratory Conditioning 31
Basics Concepts of Cardiorespiratory Exercise 32
Terms Related to Conditioning 33
Determination of Work Rate 34
Factors Affecting the Training Response 35
Active Recovery 36
How to Estimate Your Maximal Aerobic Capacity 37
Bicycle Exercise Test Instructions 37
Test Procedures 37
Estimating Maximal Aerobic Capacity 38
Types of Aerobic Activities and Basic Workouts 41
Outdoor Activities 41
Stationary Exercise Alternatives 43
Basic Workouts 49
Other Terms for Work Rate 49
METs and Watts 51
Summary 52
Chapter 4 Running for Fitness 53
Running Gear 54
Running Shoes 54
Clothes 60
Other Gear Items 60
Running Surfaces 61
Warm-Up 63
Cool-Down and Stretching 63

The Navy SEAL Physical Fitness Guide v
Running Gait or Form 63
Footstrike 64
Forward Stride 64
Body Angle 64
Arm Drive 64
Building Your Mileage 65
Running Frequency 65
Running Speed and Intensity 65
Training for a Marathon 67
Interval Training 68
Varying Your Workouts 69
Common Running Injuries or Problems 69
Resources 70
Chapter 5 Swimming for Fitness 71
Open Water Gear 72
Wet Suits 72
Hood, Gloves and Booties 72
Fins and Fin Selection 73
Face Masks 76
Open Water Training 76
Water Temperature Issues 77
Special Open Water Training Issues 78
Swimming Pool Gear 79
Goggles 79
Kickboard 79
Pullbuoy 79
Hand Paddles 80
Zoomers 80
Nose Clips 80
Pool Training: Building Strength and Endurance 80
Warming Up 81
Basic Principles of Interval Training 81
Interval Sets – Endurance 83
Interval Sets – Strength and Power 84
Integrated Workouts 84

Underwater Training 86
Varying Your Workout 86
Developing Stroke Skills 87
General Stroke Principles 87
The Strokes 88
Swimming Drills 91
Common Problems 92
Chapter 6 Strength Training 93
Weight Training Gear and Equipment 93
Strength Training Guidelines and Terms 94
Repetition Maximum or RM 95
FITT: Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type 95
Muscle Balance and Exercise Selection List 97
Determining Repetition Maximums 98
Periodization 100
Weight Lifting Techniques 103
Types of Workouts 103
Warming Up 105
Cooling Down and Stretching 106
Common Problems 106
Conclusions 107
Resource 107
Acknowledgment 107
Chapter 7 Flexibility 109
Flexibility Benefits 109
Definition 110
The Stretch Reflex and the Lengthening Reaction 111
Flexibility Training Methods 112
Dynamic Stretching 113
Static Stretching 113
Ballistic Stretching 113
PNF Stretching 114
Warming-Up and Stretching 115
General Warm-Up 116

The Navy SEAL Physical Fitness Guide vii
Activity-Specific Warm-Up 116
Recommended Stretches 118
Dynamic Stretching 118
Static Stretching 122
A Post-Exercise Total Body Stretching Program 130
Resources 131
Chapter 8 Calisthenics 133
The Muscle Strength-Endurance Continuum 133
Calisthenics in Naval Special Warfare 135
Balancing Abs and Hip Flexors and Extensors 137
Recommendations for Sit-Ups 140
Recommendations for Calisthenics 142
Calisthenic Exercises 143
Modified Calisthenic Exercises 153
Resources 158
Chapter 9 Plyometrics 159
How Plyometrics Work 160
Preparation for Plyometric Training 161
Safety in Plyometric Training 161
Program Design and the Overload Principle 162
Plyometric Training 166
Plyometric Exercises 166
Eccentric Downhill Training 172
Resources 172
Chapter 10 Load-Bearing 175
Physiological and Environmental Factors 176
Body and Load Weight 176
Biomechanics of Load-Bearing 177
Load-Bearing and Walking Pace 177
Hydration Status 179
Environmental Stress 179
Sleep Loss 180
Protective Clothing 180
Physical Training for Load- Bearing 180

Elements of a Load-Bearing Conditioning Program 180
Initiating Load Training 181
Maintaining Load-Bearing Fitness 182
Optimizing Load-Bearing 182
Common Medical Conditions 183
Conclusion 183
Acknowledgments 183
Chapter 11 Training for Specific Environments 185
Training in Hot Environments 186
Factors that Hinder Body Cooling in the Heat 186
Heat Acclimation 187
Heat Injuries 188
Summary for Hot Environments 190
Training in Cold Environments 190
Factors that Compromise Adaptations to Cold 191
Acclimation to the Cold 191
Cold Injuries 192
Nutritional Requirements 193
Summary for a Cold Environment 194
Training at Altitude 194
Acute Mountain Sickness 195
Other Factors that Hinder Performance at Altitude 195
Acclimation to Altitude 196
Training in Confined Spaces 196
Deconditioning 198
Chapter 12 Training and Sports Related Injuries 199
Treatments for Training-Related Injuries 200
Reduce Inflammation 200
Application of Ice 201
Range of Motion 202
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) 203
Reconditioning for Return to Full Activity 205
Return to Mission-Related Tasks 206
General Guidelines for Returning to Physical Activity 206
Types of Injuries 207

The Navy SEAL Physical Fitness Guide ix
Training-Related Muscle Soreness 207
Contusions 207
Sprains and Strains 208
Muscle Cramps 208
Fractures 209
Common Mission and Training Related Injuries 211
Swimming 213
Running and Hiking 214
Knee Sprains 214
Ankle Sprains 215
Overtraining Syndrome 215
When to Seek Medical Care 217
Chapter 13 Harmful Substances that Affect Performance 221
Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids 221
How do Anabolic Steroids Work? 222
How Anabolic Steroids Alter Metabolism 224
Purported Beneficial Effects of Anabolic Steroids 224
Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids 225
Legalities of Steroid Use 227
Medical Uses of Corticosteroids 227
Other Harmful Chemicals 227
Growth Hormone 227
Clenbuterol 228
Stimulants 228
Erythropoietin 231
DHEA 232
Summary 233
Resources 233
Chapter 14 Other Training-Related Issues 235
Winter Warfare Training 235
Training for Skiing 236
Turns, Stops, and Technique 236
The High Mileage SEAL 237
Nutritional Ergogenic Agents 241
Nutritional Products Advertised as Ergogenic Agents 241

Summary of Ergogenic Agents 244
Protein-Carbohydrate Supplements 245
Resource 246
Chapter 15 Physical Fitness and Training Recommendations 247
The SEAL Physical Fitness Program 247
A Physical Fitness Program for Confined Spaces 253
A Physical Fitness Program for Coming Off Travel 254
Elimination of “Old” Exercises 256
A Short Flexibility Program 257
The Navy SEAL Physical Readiness Test (PRT) 258
Final Comments From: RADM Smith 260
Summary 263
Appendix A. Weight Lifting Techniques 265
Appendix B. Common Anatomical Terms and Diagrams 275
Appendix C. Foot Care for Load-Bearing 281

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