252. Food, Nutrition Prevention Of Cancer

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252. Food, Nutrition Prevention Of Cancer

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 252

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Syllabus

Preface i v
Contents v i
Acknowledgements viii
Summary xiv
Introduction xxii
PART ONE BACKGROUND 1
Chapter 1 International variations and trends 4
1.1 Food systems and diets throughout history 5
1.2 Foods and drinks, physical activity,
body composition 11
1.3 Migrant and other ecological studies 22
1.4 Conclusions 25
Chapter 2 The cancer process 30
2.1 Basic concepts and principles 31
2.2 Cellular processes 32
2.3 Carcinogen metabolism 36
2.4 Causes of cancer 37
2.5 Nutrition and cancer 41
2.6 Conclusions 46
Chapter 3 Judging the evidence 48
3.1 Epidemiological evidence 49
3.2 Experimental evidence 52
3.3 Methods of assessment 55
3.4 Causation and risk 57
3.5 Coming to judgement 58
3.6 Conclusions 62
PART TWO EVIDENCE AND JUDGEMENTS 63
Chapter 4 Foods and drinks 66
4.1 Cereals (grains), roots, tubers and plantains 67
4.2 Vegetables, fruits, pulses (legumes), nuts,
seeds, herbs, spices 75
4.3 Meat, poultry, fish and eggs 116
4.4 Milk, dairy products 129
4.5 Fats and oils 135
4.6 Sugars and salt 141
4.7 Water, fruit juices, soft drinks and hot drinks 148
4.8 Alcoholic drinks 157
4.9 Food production, processing, preservation
and preparation 172
4.10 Dietary constituents and supplements 179
4.11 Dietary patterns 190
Chapter 5 Physical activity 198
Chapter 6 Growth, development, body
composition 210
6.1 Body fatness 211
6.2 Growth and development 229
6.3 Lactation 239

Chapter 7 Cancers 244
7.1 Mouth, pharynx and larynx 245
7.2 Nasopharynx 250
7.3 Oesophagus 253
7.4 Lung 259
7.5 Stomach 265
7.6 Pancreas 271
7.7 Gallbladder 275
7.8 Liver 277
7.9 Colon and rectum 280
7.10 Breast 289
7.11 Ovary 296
7.12 Endometrium 299
7.13 Cervix 302
7.14 Prostate 305
7.15 Kidney 310
7.16 Bladder 312
7.17 Skin 315
7.18 Other cancers 318
Chapter 8 Determinants of weight gain,
overweight, obesity 322
Chapter 9 Cancer survivors 342
Chapter 10 Findings of other reports 348
10.1 Method 349
10.2 Interpretation of the data 350
10.3 Nutritional deficiencies 350
10.4 Infectious diseases 351
10.5 Chronic diseases other than cancer 352
10.6 Cancer 355
10.7 Conclusions 358
Chapter 11 Research issues 360
PART THREE RECOMMENDATIONS 365
Chapter 12 Public health goals and
personal recommendations 368
12.1 Principles 369
12.2 Goals and recommendations 373
12.3 Patterns of food, nutrition and
physical activity 391
APPENDICES 395
Appendix A Project process 396
Appendix B The first WCRF/AICR Expert Report 398
Appendix C WCRF global network 400
Glossary 402
References 410
Index 506

CHAPTER BOXES
PART ONE BACKGROUND
Chapter 1 International variations and trends
Box Egypt 6
Box South Africa 8
Box China 10
Box 1.1 Measurement of food supply
and consumption 13
Box India 14
Box Japan 16
Box UK 18
Box 1.2 Measurement of cancer incidence
and mortality 18
Box Poland 20
Box Spain 22
Box USA 24
Box Mexico 26
Box Australia 27
Box Brazil 28
Chapter 2 The cancer process
Box 2.1 Nutrition over the life course 34
Box 2.2 Oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes 35
Box 2.3 Mechanisms for DNA repair 37
Box 2.4 Body fatness and attained height 39
Box 2.5 Energy restriction 46
Chapter 3 Judging the evidence
Box 3.1 Issues concerning interpretation of
the evidence 50
Box 3.2 Dose-response 52
Box 3.3 Forest plots 53
Box 3.4 Systematic literature reviews 54
Box 3.5 Experimental findings 55
Box 3.6 Effect modification 56
Box 3.7 Energy adjustment 57
Box 3.8 Criteria for grading evidence 60
PART TWO EVIDENCE AND JUDGEMENTS
Chapter 4 Foods and drinks
Box 4.1.1 Wholegrain and refined cereals and
their products 69
Box 4.1.2 Foods containing dietary fibre 69
Box 4.1.3 Glycaemic index and load 69
Box 4.1.4 Aflatoxins 70
Box 4.2.1 Micronutrients and other bioactive
compounds and cancer risk 78
Box 4.2.2 Phytochemicals 79
Box 4.2.3 Preparation of vegetables and nutrient
bioavailability 79
Box 4.2.4 Foods containing dietary fibre 80
Box 4.3.1 Processed meat 117
Box 4.3.2 Nitrates, nitrites and N-nitroso
compounds 118
Box 4.3.3 Foods containing iron 118
Box 4.3.4 Heterocyclic amines and polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons 119
Box 4.3.5 Cantonese-style salted fish 120
Box 4.4.1 Foods containing calcium 131
Box 4.5.1 Hydrogenation and trans-fatty acids 137

Box 4.6.1 Sugar, sugars, sugary foods and drinks 142
Box 4.6.2 Salt and salty, salted and salt-preserved
foods 143
Box 4.6.3 Chemical sweeteners 143
Box 4.6.4 Refrigeration 144
Box 4.7.1 High temperature, and irritant drinks
and foods 150
Box 4.7.2 Contamination of water, and of foods
and other drinks 150
Box 4.8.1 Types of alcoholic drink 159
Box 4.9.1 Food systems 173
Box 4.9.2 ‘Organic’ farming 174
Box 4.9.3 Regulation of additives and
contaminants 175
Box 4.9.4 Water fluoridation 176
Box 4.10.1 Food fortification 182
Box 4.10.2 Functional foods 182
Box 4.10.3 Levels of supplementation 183
Chapter 5 Physical activity
Box 5.1 Energy cost and intensity of activity 200
Box 5.2 Sedentary ways of life 201
Chapter 6 Growth, development, body composition
Box 6.2.1 Sexual maturity 232
Box 6.2.2 Age at menarche and risk of
breast cancer 232

Chapter 7 Cancers
Box 7.1.1 Cancer incidence and survival 246
Box 7.2.1 Epstein-Barr virus 251
Box 7.5.1 Helicobacter pylori 266
Box 7.8.1 Hepatitis viruses 278
Box 7.13.1 Human papilloma viruses 303
Chapter 8 Determinants of weight gain,
overweight, obesity
Box 8.1 Energy density 324
Box 8.2 Fast food 325
Box 8.3 Body fatness in childhood 326
Box 8.4 Television viewing 331
Chapter 9 Cancer survivors
Box 9.1 Conventional and unconventional
therapies 345
Box 9.2 Use of supplements by cancer survivors 346
Chapter 10 Findings of other reports
Chapter 11 Research issues
PART THREE RECOMMENDATIONS
Chapter 12 Public health goals and personal

recommendations
Box 12.1 Quantification 371
Box 12.2 Making gradual changes 372
Box 12.3 Height, weight and ranges of BMI 375
Box 12.4 When supplements are advisable 387
Box 12.5 Regional and special circumstances 392

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