247. Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease

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247. Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 247

FEES: 555/- INR only

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

PERMISSION TO USE STATEMENT i
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES AND EQUATIONS xi
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS, AND ACRONYMS xiii

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Rationale 1
1.2 Hypothesis 1
1.3 Objectives 2

2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 PNALD Overview 3
2.2 Risk factors 4
2.2.1 Prematurity 5
2.2.2 Surgery 5
2.2.3 Prolonged PN exposure 5
2.2.4 Immature biliary system 6
2.2.5 Lack of enteral feeding 7
2.2.6 Aluminum contamination 8
2.2.7 Lipids 11
2.3 PNALD Pathophysiology 14
2.3.1 Sepsis and inflammation 14
2.3.2 Oxidative stress 16
2.4 Treatments and preventative measures 16
2.5 Bile acid transporters of interest 26
2.6 Piglet model 34
2.7 Rationale 37
3 TRANSITIONS 38
4 INFANT PARENTERAL NUTRITION REMAINS A SIGNIFICANT SOURCE FOR
ALUMINUM TOXICITY

4.1 Abstract 41
4.2 Introduction 42
4.3 Methods 43
4.4 Results 45
4.5 Discussion 49
4.6 Conclusion 52

5 EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM ON BILE ACID TRANSPORTERS
USING A PIGLET PARENTERAL NUTRITION MODEL WITH OMEGA-6
LIPIDS

5.1 Abstract 53
5.2 Introduction 54
5.3 Objectives 55
5.4 Methods 55
5.5 Results 66
5.6 Discussion 73
5.7 Conclusion 79

6 EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM ON BILE ACID TRANSPORTERS
USING A PIGLET PARENTERAL NUTRITION MODEL WITH MIXED LIPIDS
6.1 Abstract 80
6.2 Introduction 81
6.3 Objectives 82
6.4 Methods 83
6.5 Results 88
6.6 Discussion 97
6.7 Conclusion 101

7 COMPARING AND CONTRASTING THE PIGLET PARENTERAL NUTRITION
STUDIES (WITH OMEGA-6 AND MIXED LIPIDS)

7.1 Methods comparison 102
7.2 Results 103
7.3 Discussion 106
7.4 Conclusion 107

8 ALUMINUM ASSOCIATED BILE CANALICULUS CHANGES

8.1 Abstract 108
8.2 Introduction 109
8.3 Objectives 110
8.4 Methods 110
8.5 Results 113
8.6 Discussion 116
8.7 Conclusion 119
9 THE EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM AND LIPIDS ON BILE ACID TRANSPORTERS
IN A HEPATOCYTE MODEL

9.1 Abstract 120
9.2 Introduction 121
9.3 Objectives 122
9.4 Methods 123
9.5 Results 129
9.6 Discussion 134
9.7 Conclusion 137
10 FINAL DISCUSSION, FUTURE DIRECTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
10.1 Main findings 139
10.2 Strengths and limitations of study designs 141
10.3 New knowledge 143
10.4 Future directions 151
10.5 Significance and recommendations 153
11 REFERENCES 156
12 APPENDIX

A. COURSES
A1 Swine handling 177
A2 Biosafety 178
B. PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE ARTICLES/FIGURES 179
C. PN RECIPES 182

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