241. Physics Of Skiing

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241. Physics Of Skiing

 

 

CATEGORY: Sports & Recreation 250 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 241

FEES: 555/- INR only

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Preface to the Second Edition …………………………… vii
Preface to the First Edition ……………………………… IX
Chapter 1
Introduction: At the Tripie Point ………………………….. 1
Skiing Through the Ages …………………………………… 2
Three Classes of Skiing …………………………………….. 4
Snow: The Playing Field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … 6
Equipment …………………………………………….. 6
Skiing Technique ………………………………………… 7
From Tracks to Treks ……………………………………… 8
Friction: Glide and Grab …………………………………… 8
Epilogue: Physics, Skiing, and the Future ………………………… 9
Conclusion …………………………………………….. 9
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 2
Snow: The Playing Field ………………………………… 11
The Formation of Snow in the Atmosphere ……………………… 12
Making Artificial Snow ……………………………………. 17
The Snow Cover on the Ground ……………………………… 20
The Water Molecule ……………………………………… 31
References ……………………………………………. 43
Chapter 3
Equipment: Properties and Performance . ………………….. 44
Ski Geometry ………………………………………….. 45
Ski Materials and Construction ……………………………… 48
Mechanical and Dynamic Properties ………………………….. 52

The Load-Distribution Problem ……………………………… 64
Bindings and Boots ……………………………………… 70
Snowboard Equipment. …………………………………… 74
Conclusion ……………………………………………. 76
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………… 77
Chapter 4
Alpine Skiing Techniques: Gliding, Wedging, and Carving . ……. 78
Fundamentals ofNewtonian Mechanics ………………………… 78
Dynamics of Straight Gliding ……………………………….. 86
Mechanics of the Traverse …………………………………. 91
Edging and Angulation ……………………………………. 93
Mechanics ofWedging and the Wedge Turn …………………….. 95
Mechanics of the Carved Turn ………………………………. 98
Snowboarding and the Carved Turn ………………………….. 106
Free-Heel or Telemark Skiing ………………………………. 108
Conclusion …………………………………………… 109
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Chapter 5
Interactive Dynamics of Alpine Maneuvers . ……………….. 111
Skiing Nonplanar Surfaces ………………………………… 111
Rotation and Counterrotation ……………………………… 115
Lateral Projection ………………………………………. 117
Leg Thrust …………………………………………… 118
Body Angulation ………………………………………. 122
Independent Leg Action ………………………………….. 123
Canting …………………………………………….. 125
Fore and Aft Shuffle …………………………………….. 126
Arm and Pole Action ……………………………………. 127
References …………………………………………… 128
Chapter 6
High-Performance Skiing ………………………………. 129
Aerodynamic Drag ……………………………………… 129
Quickest Descent Trajectories ………………………………. 131

Turning with Maximum Speed ……………………………… 132
Pumping to Increase Velocity ………………………………. 135
Balancing and Edging on One Ski ……………………………. 136
Edging, Skidding, and Carving ……………………………… 139
Field Study of Carving Turns ………………………………. 143
References …………………………………………… 147
Chapter 7
Nordic Skiing: Running the Tracks . ……………………… 148
Track and Cross-Country Equipment …………………………. 148
Nordic Track Techniques …………………………………. 151
References …………………………………………… 158
Chapter 8
Adventure Skiing ……………………………………… 159
Equipment …………………………………………… 159
Snow Compaction ……………………………………… 161
Dynamics of Carved Turns in Soft Snow ………………………. 163
The Physics of Survival …………………………………… 168
References …………………………………………… 171
Chapter 9
Friction: Glide and Grab ……………………………….. 172
Snow Compaction and Plowing …………………………….. 173
Dry Friction ………………………………………….. 174
Meltwater Lubrication and Viscous Friction …………………….. 175
Capillary and Triboelectric Drag Effects ……………………….. 177
Empirical Models of Ski Friction ……………………………. 179
Waxing for Glide and Grab ……………………………….. 180
Friction as Art ………………………………………… 186
References …………………………………………… 187
Chapter 10
Epilogue: Physics, Skiing, and the Future . ………………… 189
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Technote 1
Thermodynamics 01 Phase Changes …………………….. 195
Clausius-Clapeyron Relation für Curved Surfaces …………………. 198
Reference ……………………………………………. 200
Technote 2
Ski Loading and Flexure on a Groomed Snow Surlace ……… 201
Reference ……………………………………………. 203
Technote 3
The Loads on a Running Ski ……………………………. 204
Technote 4
Geometry 01 the Edged and Flexed Ski …………………… 206
Technote 5
The Dynamics 01 Carving a Turn ………………………… 208
Reference . . ………………………………………….. 214
Technote 6
Up-and-Down Unweighting …………………………….. 215
Technote 7
Analysis 01 Prejumping ………………………………… 218
Technote 8
Aerodynamic Drag ……………………………………. 221
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………………………. 226
Technote 9
The Brachistochrone Problem …………………………… 228
References …………………………………………… 230
Technote 10
Pumping to Increase Velocity …………………………… 231
Reference ……………………………………………. 233

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