240. Metabolic Responses Of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise

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240. Metabolic Responses Of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise

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Syllabus

SUMMARY ii
CANDIDATE DECLARATION vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii
LIST OF COMMUNICATIONS AND AWARDS ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS xi
LIST OF FIGURES xviii
LIST OF TABLES xxiii
ABBREVIATIONS xxiv
CHAPTER ONE: PERSPECTIVES
1.1 Thesis scope 1
1.2 General aims 3
1.3 Significance 3
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Energy balance 5
2.2 Substrate utilisation 6
2.2.1 Substrate sources 6
2.2.1.1 Transport of FFA into skeletal muscle 7
2.2.1.2 Pathway of FFA into the mitochondria for oxidation 8
2.3 Energy systems 9
2.3.1.1 The mitochondria: Powerhouse of the skeletal muscle 10
2.4 Classifying exercise intensity and substrate utilisation 14
2.5 Substrate utilisation during low exercise intensities <25% VO2max 14
2.6 Substrate utilisation during moderate exercise intensities 25-85% VO2max 15
2.6.1 The pathway of pyruvate into the mitochondria 16
2.7 Substrate utilisation during high Intensity exercise >85% VO2max 16
2.7.1 High intensity exercise stimulates anaerobic glycolysis 17
2.7.2 High intensity exercise decreases fat oxidation 19
2.8 The fat burning exercise zone 21
2.8.1 Establishing Fatmax zone 22
2.8.2 Fat oxidation is optimal whilst exercising at 65% VO2max 23
2.9 High intensity intermittent exercise and high intensity intermittent training 25
2.9.1 HIIT is better than CONT at rapidly reducing adiposity 28
2.9.2 The metabolic differences between HIIE and CON 31
2.9.2.1 Substrate utilisation during high intensity intermittent exercise 32
2.9.2.2 Catecholamine release stimulate fat oxidation 34
2.9.2.3 The effect of elevated excess post exercise oxygen consumption post
high intensity exercise 35
2.9.2.3.1 The effect of exercise intensity and duration on EPOC 36

2.9.2.3.2 The effect of supra-maximal exercise intensity (>100% VO2max)
on EPOC 37
2.9.2.3.3 Limitations to EPOC 38
2.9.2.4 Increasing energy loss via purine nucleotide excretion post high
intensity exercise 39
2.9.2.5 Lactate is found in the urine after exercise 43
2.10 Differences between male and females genders in skeletal muscle metabolism 45
2.11 Aims and hypothesis 49
2.11.1 Aims and hypotheses of study 1 50
2.11.2 Aims and hypotheses of study 2 51
2.11.3 Aim and hypotheses of study 3 52
2.11.4 Aim and hypotheses of study 4 53
CHAPTER THREE: EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES
3.1 Participants 54
3.1.1 Exclusion Criteria for male and female participants 54
3.1.2 Subject Characteristics 55
3.2 Preliminary testing 56
3.2.1 Peak oxygen consumption test (VO2peak) 56
3.2.2 Heart rate monitoring 57
3.3 Familiarisation session 57
3.4 Experimental Design 57
3.4.1 Exercise Protocols 58
3.4.1.1 Exercise protocols employed in chapter 4 59
3.4.1.2 Exercise protocols employed in chapter 5 60
3.4.1.3 Exercise protocols employed in chapter 6 61
3.4.1.4 Exercise protocols employed in chapter 7 61
3.5 Measurements and Analysis 61
3.5.1 Respiratory gas sampling 62
3.5.2 Heart rate monitoring 62
3.5.3 Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) 63
3.5.4 Blood sampling and collection 64
3.5.4.1 Study time points 64
3.5.4.2 Plasma analysis 65
3.5.4.2.1 Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) 65
3.5.4.2.2 Plasma glycerol 66
3.5.4.2.3 Plasma glucose and lactate 68
3.5.4.2.4 Plasma insulin 69
3.5.4.2.5 Plasma purines (hypoxanthine (Hx), xanthine, inosine and
uric acid) 71
3.5.5 Urine sampling and analysis 74
3.5.6 Muscle sampling and collection 74
3.5.6.1 Freeze-drying 74

3.5.6.2 Muscle crushing and extraction 75
3.5.6.2.1 Metabolite extraction (Lactate, Creatine, ATP-CP) 75
3.5.6.2.2 Glycogen extraction 76
3.5.6.3 Metabolite analysis 77
3.5.6.3.1 ATP-CP 78
3.5.6.3.2 Creatine 80
3.5.6.3.3 Lactate 81
3.5.6.3.4 Glycogen 81
3.6 Statistical Analysis 82
CHAPTER FOUR: THE RESULT OF SHORT DURATION HIGH INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EXERCISE
AND CONTINUOUS EXERCISE ON METABOLIC PROFILES IN HEALTHY UNTRAINED MALES
4.1 Introduction 84
4.1.1 Aims and hypothesis 85
4.2 Methods 86
4.2.1 Participant characteristics 86
4.2.2 Preliminary Testing 86
4.2.2.1 Respiratory gas exchange 86
4.2.3 Familiarisation session 86
4.2.4 Trial day procedure 87
4.2.4.1 Experimental Design 87
4.2.4.2 Respiratory gas collection and analysis 87
4.2.4.3 Blood collection and analysis 88
4.2.4.4 Urine collection and analysis 88
4.2.5 Statistical Analysis 88
4.3 Results 89
4.3.1 Physiological markers 89
4.3.1.1 Total work (kJ) 89
4.3.1.2 Oxygen consumption (VO2) 90
4.3.1.3 Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) 91
4.3.1.4 Heart rate 92
4.3.2 Substrate metabolism 93
4.3.2.1 Plasma FFA 94
4.3.2.2 Plasma glycerol 95
4.3.2.3 Plasma lactate 96
4.3.2.4 Plasma glucose 96
4.3.2.5 Plasma insulin 97
4.3.3 Purine Metabolism 98
4.3.3.1 Plasma inosine 98
4.3.3.2 Plasma xanthine 99
4.3.3.3 Plasma hypoxanthine (Hx) 100
4.3.3.4 Plasma uric acid 101
4.3.3.5 Urinary purines 102

4.4 Discussion 103
4.4.1 RSA and CCT exercise cause similar metabolic responses during and
post exercise 103
4.4.2 Fat utilisation during and post RSA and CCT exercise 105
4.4.3 Conclusion 108
CHAPTER FIVE: THE INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE INTENSITY AND REST PERIODS ON THE METABOLIC
RESPONSES FOLLOWING WORKLOAD MATCHED HIGH INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EXERCISE
5.1 Introduction 110
5.1.1 Aims and hypothesis 112
5.2 Methods 113
5.2.1 Participant characteristics 113
5.2.2 Preliminary Testing 113
5.2.2.1 Respiratory gas exchange 113
5.2.3 Familiarisation session 113
5.2.4 Trial procedure 114
5.2.4.1 Experimental design 114
5.2.4.3 Blood Collection and Analysis 115
5.2.4.4 Muscle Collection and Analysis 115
5.2.4.5 Urine collection and analysis 116
5.2.4.6 Rating of perceived exertion 116
5.2.5 Statistical Analysis 116
5.3 Results 118
5.3.1 Physiological Markers 118
5.3.1.1 Oxygen consumption (VO2) 118
5.3.1.2 Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) 119
5.3.1.3 Heart rate 120
5.3.1.4 Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) 121
5.3.2 Substrate metabolism 122
5.3.2.1 Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) 122
5.3.2.2 Plasma glycerol 123
5.3.2.3 Plasma lactate 124
5.3.2.3b Plasma lactate area under the curve 125
5.3.2.4 Plasma glucose 126
5.3.2.5 Plasma insulin 127
5.3.2.6 Muscle glycogen 128
5.3.2.7 Muscle lactate 129
5.3.2.8 Muscle ATP 130
5.3.2.9 Muscle creatine phosphate 131
5.3.2.10 Total Muscle Creatine 132
5.3.2.11 Urinary lactate 133
5.3.3 Purine Metabolism 134

5.3.3.1 Plasma inosine 134
5.3.3.2 Plasma xanthine 135
5.3.3.3 Plasma Hx 136
5.3.3.4 Plasma uric acid 137
5.3.3.5 Urinary purines 138
5.4 Discussion 139
5.4.1 Altering exercise intensity and duration to match workload does not affect
metabolic profiles of HIIE 139
5.4.1.1 Exericse induced metabolic perturbations 140
5.4.1.2 The value of incorporating a rest period into HIIE 143
5.4.2 Post exercise energy deficit 145
5.4.3 Conclusion 146
CHAPTER SIX: URINARY LACTATE EXCRETION INCREASES AS EXERCISE INTENSITY IS INCREASED
IN HEALTHY UNTRAINED MALES
6.1 Introduction 147
6.1.1 Aims and hypothesis 149
6.2 Methods 150
6.2.1 Participants 150
6.2.2 Preliminary Testing 150
6.2.2.1 Respiratory gas exchange 150
6.2.3 Trial procedure 150
6.2.3.1 Experimental design 150
6.2.4 Measurements 151
6.2.4.1 Blood Sampling and analysis 151
6.2.4.2 Urine collection and analysis 151
6.2.5 Statistical Analysis 152
6.3 Results 153
6.3.1 Total work of exercise 153
6.3.2 Plasma lactate and glucose 154
6.3.3 Urinary lactate and glucose 157
6.4 Discussion 159
6.4.1 Urinary lactate excretion increases as exercise intensity increases 159
6.4.3 Conclusion 162
CHAPTER SEVEN: THE METABOLIC IMPACT OF ALL OUT HIGH INTENSITY INTERMITTENT
EXERCISE IN ADULTS
7.1 Introduction 163
7.1.1 Aims and hypothesis 164
7.2 Methods 166
7.2.1 Participant characteristics 166
7.2.2 Preliminary Testing 166
7.2.2.1 Respiratory gas exchange 166

7.2.3 Familiarisation session 166
7.2.4 Trial procedure 167
7.2.4.1 Experimental design 167
7.2.4.2 Respiratory gas collection and analysis 167
7.2.4.3 Blood Collection and Analysis 168
7.2.4.4 Urine collection and analysis 168
7.2.4.5 Rating of perceived exertion 168
7.2.5 Statistical Analysis 168
7.3 Results 170
7.3.1 Peak power 170
7.3.2 Mean power 172
7.3.3 Oxygen consumption (VO2) 174
7.3.4 Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) 176
7.3.5 Heart rate 178
7.3.6 Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) 180
7.3.7 Substrate Metabolism 182
7.3.7.1 Plasma FFA 182
7.3.7.2 Plasma glycerol 184
7.3.7.3 Plasma lactate 186
7.3.7.4 Plasma glucose 188
7.3.7.5 Plasma insulin 190
7.3.7.6 Urinary lactate 191
7.3.8 Purine Nucleotide Metabolism 193
7.3.8.1 Plasma inosine 193
7.3.8.2 Plasma xanthine 194
7.3.8.3 Plasma Hx 195
7.3.8.4 Plasma uric acid 197
7.3.8.5 Urinary purines 199
7.4 Discussion 201
7.4.1 There is greater lactate excretion after the 24:36 trial compared to the 8:12 in
the male group 201
7.4.2 Purine nucleotide metabolism in the male cohort 202
7.4.3.1 Fat utilisation post exercise in healthy males 203
7.4.4 Metabolic responses to 8:12 and 24:36 trials in females 204
7.4.5 Metabolic gender differences during maximal effort HIIE 207
7.4.6 Conclusion 208
CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
8.1 Conclusions 210
8.1.2 Limitations 213
8.2 Future directions 215
8.2.1 Isotopic tracers to elucidate pathways of substrates and metabolites 215
8.2.2 Metabolomics 216

8.2.3 Training Programs 216
8.2.4 Population groups 217
8.2.5 Single fibres, genetics and Fibre typing 219
CHAPTER NINE: LIST OF REFERENCES 220
APPENDICES 257

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