237. Chiropractic Spinography

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237. Chiropractic Spinography

 

 

CATEGORY:Alternative Medicines 300 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 237

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

PREFACE ……………………………………………………………………………………………….13
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………..15

CHIROPRACTIC SPINOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………..24
Principles of Spinograph Analysis……………………………………………………25
Curvatures as Shown by Spinograph…………………………………………………75
Spinographs Are Great Aid……………………………………………………………..76
Rotatory Scoliosis …………………………………………………………………………76
Two Kinds of Curvatures………………………………………………………………..77
When Caution Is Necessary …………………………………………………………….78
When to Correct Scoliosis……………………………………………………………….80
One of the Methods to Correct Scoliosis……………………………………………81
Close Attention Necessary in Procedure ……………………………………………82
Curvatures Easily Detected……………………………………………………………..82
Lateral Scoliosis ……………………………………………………………….. 82
Direction of Spinous Process in Curvature ………………………………………..83
The Adjustment of the Curvature……………………………………………………..83
The Adjustment on the Apex of the Curvature……………………………………84
More Accurate Perception of the Curvature by Spinograph………………….84
Description of Spinographic Negatives……………………………………………..85
Lumbar Spinographs ……………………………………………………………………..87
Lower Dorsal Spinographs…………………………………………………………….135
Lower Cervical and Upper Dorsal Spinographs………………………………..153
Atlas and Axis Spinographs…………………………………………………………..181
Lateral Spinographs …………………………………………………………………….206

X-RAY ELECTRICITY …………………………………………………………………….215
Definitions and Terminology …………………………………………………………215
Electrical Conductors …………………………………………………………………..223
Electrical Non-Conductors …………………………………………………. 223
MAGNETS AND MAGNETISM ………………………………………………………..224
Electro-Magnetic Induction ………………………………………………………….225
OHMS LAW ……………………………………………………………………………………226
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS ………………………………………………………………..229
Series Circuits …………………………………………………………………………….229
Parallel Circuits ………………………………………………………………………….229
ALTERNATING CURRENT …………………………………………………………….230
Induction ……………………………………………………………………………………234

CHIROPRACTIC SPINOGRAPHY
ELECTRICAL PRESSURE APPARATUS………………………………………………….235
The Transformer ……………………………………………………………………………….235
Step-Down Transformer …………………………………………………………………….238
Auto-Transformer ……………………………………………………………………………..239
ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE APPARATUS ……………………………………………..241
The Rheostat …………………………………………………………………………………….241
The Filament Control………………………………………………………………………….243
OTHER X-RAY ELECTRICAL APPARATUS……………………………………………244
Synchronous Motor …………………………………………………………………………..244
Rotary and Synchronous Converters……………………………………………………..246
Rotary Rectifying Disc or Switch …………………………………………………………246
ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ………………………………………….249
The Milli-Ampere-Meter ……………………………………………………………………249
The Ampere-Meter …………………………………………………………………………….250
The Volt-Meter …………………………………………………………………………………250
The Spark-Gap ………………………………………………………………………………….250
The Polarity Indicator …………………………………………………………………………252
THE X-RAY MACHINE ………………………………………………………………………….252
Motor Type of Apparatus…………………………………………………………………….252
Motorless Type X-Ray Apparatus…………………………………………………………255

X-RAY PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ……………………………………………………………256
Discovery of X-Rays…………………………………………………………………………..256
X-Rays …………………………………………………………………………………………….258
The Laws of Production………………………………………………………………………260
Secondary Radiation ………………………………………………………………………….261
Physics of X-Ray Production……………………………………………………………… 212

X-RAY TUBES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES……………………………………………269
THE GAS TUBE ………………………………………………………………………………..269
Descriptive Parts of the Gas Tube…………………………………………………………270
Testing and Operating a Gas Tube………………………………………………………..271
How to Raise the Vacuum of a Gas Tube ………………………………………………273
THE HYDROGEN X-RAY TUBE…………………………………………………………273
Description of the Hydrogen X-Ray Gas Tube ……………………………………….273
THE COOLIDGE X-RAY TUBE…………………………………………………………..275
Types of Coolidge Tubes …………………………………………………………………….276
Universal Type of Coolidge Tube…………………………………………………………276
Construction of Universal Tube ……………………………………………………….276
Cathode Terminal ………………………………………………………………………….277
Anode or Anti-Cathode Terminal……………………………………………………..278
High Tension Circuit of the Universal Coolidge Tube …………………………279
Capacities of the Universal Tubes…………………………………………………….279

CHIROPRACTIC SPINOGRAPHY
General Remarks ……………………………………………………………………..280
Method of Operation…………………………………………………………………281
THE RADIATOR TYPE COOLIDGE TUBE ……………………………284
Construction of the Radiator Tube ………………………………………284
Cathode Terminal …………………………………………………………285
Anode or Anti-Cathode……………………………………………………286
The High Tension Circuit of Radiator Tube……………………………287
Theory of Operation on Unrectified Current (A. C.)………………….287
Capacities of Radiator Tubes…………………………………………….288
Focal Spots …………………………………………………………………288
The Spark Gap ……………………………………………………………..288
General Remarks ………………………………………………………….289
DETERMINING THE SIZE OF FOCAL SPOTS …………………………..292
THE POTTER-BUCKY DIAPHRAGM…………………………………………..293
Secondary and Scattered Radiation ……………………………………………293
Theory of Operation of Potter’s Bucky Diaphragm ………………….295
H. E. Potter’s Bucky Diaphragm ……………………………………….295
Different Types and Makes ……………………………………………..297
INTENSIFYING SCREENS …………………………………………………297
X-Ray Negatives ………………………………………………………….298
Why Good Screens Are Necessary………………………………………298
What Constitutes a Good Intensifying Screen …………………………299
Directions for Use of Intensifying Screens …………………………….301
Single Screen Technique………………………………………………….301
Double Screen Technique…………………………………………………302
Method of Mounting Single intensifying Screens……………………..303
Method of Mounting Special Intensifying Screens……………………304
Care of Intensifying Screens……………………………………………..304

THE PREPARING AND PLACING OF THE PATIENT FOR TAKING SPINO-
GRAPHS ………………………………………………………………………….307

Number of Films Required ……………………………………………….309
Rules to Follow …………………………………………………………….311
Placing of Patient on Spinograph Table ………………………………..312
Placing of Film or Plate for the Various Regions of the Spine………313
Other Regions ……………………………………………………………..314
Method of Verification ……………………………………………………316
Placement for Lateral Views……………………………………………..318

PROTECTION OF PATIENT AND OPERATOR …………………………….322
Effects of X-Rays on Tissues …………………………………………………….322
Factors Which Determine the Amount of Exposure Permissible …….322
Factors Which Should Be Used for the Patient’s Protection …………..323
Testing of Apparatus ……………………………………………………………….324
Filtering the Rays …………………………………………………………………….324

CHIROPRACTIC SPINOGRAPHY
The Target Skin Distance………………………………………………………………325
Amount of Exposure Which May Be Given Without Danger to
the Patient …………………………………………………………………………..326
Sufficient Penetration …………………………………………………………………..326
Value of Intensifying Screens ………………………………………………………..327
Use Lead-Glass Bowl and Lead-Lined Cones…………………………………..327
Protection of Patient from Static and High Tension Current……………….327
Protection of Operator from Shock…………………………………………………332

SPINOGRAPHIC EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE ………………………………………334
The Photographic Effect by Distance-Time Relation…………………………334
By Voltage-Time Relation …………………………………………………………….338
By Current-time Relation………………………………………………………………338
Summary of the Above Relationships……………………………………………..339
Tissue Absorption and Time Relation……………………………………………..339
Tube Condition Tests for Current and Spark Gap……………………………..340
Machine Precautions ……………………………………………………………………344
Milli-Ampere Seconds …………………………………………………………………345
SPINOGRAPHIC EXPOSURE TABLES……………………………………………..346
Spinograph Exposure Table with the Use of X-Ray Plates…………………347
Spinograph Exposure Table with the Use of Duplitized Films
and Double Intensifying Screens …………………………………………….348
Spinographic Exposure Table with the Use of Duplitized Films,
Double Intensifying Screens, and Bucky Diaphragm …………………358
Spinographing Children ……………………………………………………………….359
Method of Recording and Checking on Spinographs…………………………360

RADIOGRAPHS OF OTHER OSSEOUS STRUCTURES ………………………362
RADIOGRAPHY OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES………………………….363
Part—Foot …………………………………………………………………………………363
Part—Os Calcis ………………………………………………………………………….364
Part—Ankle ……………………………………………………………………………….365
Part—Knee ………………………………………………………………………………..365
Part—Hip …………………………………………………………………………………..366
RADIOGRAPHY OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES…………………………………367
Part—Hand (Fingers and Metacarpals)……………………………………………367
Part—Wrist ………………………………………………………………………………..369
Part—Elbow ………………………………………………………………………………370
Part—Clavical ……………………………………………………………………………371
Part—Scapula and Shoulder Joint ………………………………………………….372
Part—Sternum ……………………………………………………………………………373
Part—Ribs …………………………………………………………………………………374
RADIOGRAPHY OF THE HEAD …………………………………………………………375
Part—Frontal Sinus and Frontal Bone …………………………………………….375
Part—Antrum …………………………………………………………………………….376

CHIROPRACTIC SPINOGRAPHY
Part—Skull (Inferior to Superior) …………………………………………………………377
Part—Occipital Bone …………………………………………………………………………377
Part—Mastoid ………………………………………………………………………………….378
Part—Mandible ………………………………………………………………………………..378
X-RAY DENTAL RADIOGRAPHS ………………………………………………………….379

SOFT TISSUE RADIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………….383
Part—Oesophagus …………………………………………………………………… 384
Part—Stomach …………………………………………………………………………385
Part—Small Intestines ……………………………………………………………………….387
Part—Large Intestines ………………………………………………………………..387
RADIOGRAPHY OF THE THORAX…………………………………………………….389
Part—Heart ………………………………………………………………………………………389
Part—Lungs ……………………………………………………………………………390
RADIOGRAPHY OF THE URINARY TRACT……………………………………….391
Part—Kidney ……………………………………………………………………………………392
Part—Ureters ……………………………………………………………………………………393
Part—Urinary Bladder ……………………………………………………………….394
RADIOGRAPHY OF THE GALL-BLADDER LIVER AND GALLSTONES394

PHOTOGRAPH CHEMISTRY AND DARKROOM PROCEDURE………………396
Plate Loading ………………………………………………………………………………….. 397
Loading Cassette with Duplitized Films ………………………………………………..400
Developing Process ……………………………………………………………………………401
Rinsing of the Film or Plate…………………………………………………………………402
Fixation Procedure …………………………………………………………………………….403
Washing of the Film After Fixation ………………………………………………………403
Drying the Film or Plate ……………………………………………………………………..403
Developing Procedure (Tank Method)…………………………………………………..404
Formula for Special Hardening…………………………………………………………….407
Developer Formula for Tank Use………………………………………………………….408
Developing Duplitized X-Ray Films……………………………………………………..408
Developing Dental Films …………………………………………………………………….409
Developer Formula for Tray Use ………………………………………………………….409
Fixing Bath or HYPO …………………………………………………………………………410
Hypo Fixing Bath Formula ………………………………………………………………….410
Intensification Process ……………………………………………………………………….411
Intensifier Formula ……………………………………………………………………………412
Reducing Process ………………………………………………………………………………412
Reducer Formula ………………………………………………………………………………413
Storage of Photographic Sensitive Material and Accessories ……………………413
Dark-Room Equipment ……………………………………………………………………………415
Dark-Room “Don’ts” …………………………………………………………………………417
Plate or Film Troubles ………………………………………………………………………..418
CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………419

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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