233. Power, High-Intensity Resistance Exercise

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233. Power, High-Intensity Resistance Exercise

CATEGORY: Fitness, Workout & Exercise 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 01

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Syllabus

ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii
CO-AUTHORSHIP FORMS ……………………………………………………………………………………. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………. v
STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION ……………………………………………………………………… vii
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………. viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………. ix
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. xiv
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………………………………. xix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………. xxi
1.0 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
2.0 REVIEW OF LITERATURE …………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.1 Unique Aspects of Competitive Weightlifting: Performance, Training and
Physiology ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.1.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.1.2 Literature Reviewed ……………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.2 Weightlifting Performance ………………………………………………………………………… 10
2.2.1 The Snatch ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
2.2.2 The Clean and Jerk ……………………………………………………………………………. 12
2.3 Training …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
2.3.1 Exercises ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
2.3.2 Annual Training Structure ………………………………………………………………….. 15
2.3.3 Application and Variation in Training Load …………………………………………. 16
2.3.4 Metabolic Cost of Weightlifting and Nutritional Practices ……………………… 19
2.3.5 Influence of Body Weight Changes on Performance ……………………………… 20
2.4 Anthropometric Characteristics of Weightlifters ……………………………………….. 21
2.5 Physiological Responses and Adaptations to Weightlifting …………………………. 22
2.5.1 Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function ……………………………………………….. 23
2.5.1.1 Fibre Type Composition ………………………………………………………… 23
2.5.1.2 Neuromuscular Function ……………………………………………………….. 24
2.5.1.3 Sex- and Age-Related Differences in Neuromuscular Function …… 25
2.5.2 Bone Mineral Density………………………………………………………………………… 28

2.5.3 Cardiovascular Structure and Function ………………………………………………… 28
2.5.4 Endocrine …………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
2.5.4.1 Testosterone …………………………………………………………………………. 30
2.5.4.2 Testosterone:Cortisol Ratio ……………………………………………………. 31
2.5.4.3 Growth Hormone ………………………………………………………………….. 32
2.6 Physiological Responses and Adaptations to High Frequency, High-Intensity
Resistance Exercise …………………………………………………………………………………… 33
2.6.1 Neuromuscular Responses………………………………………………………………….. 33
2.6.2 Skeletal Muscle Architectural Responses and Adaptations …………………….. 35
2.6.3 Oxidative Stress Response …………………………………………………………………. 36
2.6.3.1 Measures of Oxidative Stress …………………………………………………. 37
2.6.3.2 Protein Carbonyls …………………………………………………………………. 38
2.6.4 Resistance Exercise Overreaching and Overtraining ……………………………… 40
2.6.4.1 The Role of Training Volume and Intensity………………………………. 42
2.7 Gene Expression Responses to Resistance Exercise ……………………………………. 44
2.7.1 Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells ………………………. 45
2.7.2 Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscle ……………………………………………………. 48
2.7.3 Influence of Feeding on Exercise-Induced Gene Expression …………………… 51
2.8 Chemokine Responses to Resistance Exercise …………………………………………….. 53
2.8.1 C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 4 (CXCR4)……………………………………… 55
2.8.2 Stromal-Cell Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) ……………………………………………….. 56
2.8.3 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1β (MIP-1β) …………………………………… 58
2.8.4 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) ………………………………………….. 60
3.0 RESEARCH AIMS AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH ……………………………….. 63
3.1 Specific Aims ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
3.2 Experimental Approach ………………………………………………………………………………… 64
4.0 TRANSCRIPTIONAL, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND PERFORMANCE
RESPONSES TO VARIATIONS IN TRAINING LOAD IN COMPETITIVE
WEIGHTLIFTERS ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
4.1 Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
4.2 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
4.3 Methods ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
4.3.1 Participants ………………………………………………………………………………………… 72

4.3.2 Experimental Design …………………………………………………………………………… 72
4.3.3 Training Program………………………………………………………………………………… 74
4.3.4 Performance Testing ……………………………………………………………………………. 75
4.3.5 Blood Sampling and PBMC Isolation ……………………………………………………. 79
4.3.6 Total RNA Isolation ……………………………………………………………………………. 80
4.3.7 cDNA Microarray Analysis ………………………………………………………………….. 82
4.3.8 Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) ……………………. 84
4.3.9 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1β Analysis ……………………………………… 88
4.3.10 Protein Carbonyl Analysis …………………………………………………………………… 89
4.3.11 Psychological Assessment …………………………………………………………………… 91
4.3.12 Data Presentation and Statistics……………………………………………………………. 92
4.4 Results………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
4.4.1 Participants ………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
4.4.2 Training Program………………………………………………………………………………… 95
4.4.3 Performance Testing ……………………………………………………………………………. 96
4.4.4 cDNA Microarray ……………………………………………………………………………….. 98
4.4.5 Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) ………………….. 102
4.4.6 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1β …………………………………………………. 103
4.4.7 Protein Carbonyl ……………………………………………………………………………….. 104
4.4.8 Psychological Assessment ………………………………………………………………….. 105
4.5 Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
4.6 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
5.0 DIVERGENT MUSCLE FUNCTIONAL AND ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSES
TO TWO SUCCESSIVE HIGH-INTENSITY RESISTANCE EXERCISE
SESSIONS IN COMPETITIVE WEIGHTLIFTERS AND RESISTANCE
TRAINED ADULTS ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 128
5.1 Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
5.2 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
5.3 Methods ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
5.3.1 Participants ………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
5.3.2 Experimental Design …………………………………………………………………………. 133
5.3.3 Muscle Architecture ………………………………………………………………………….. 133
5.3.4 Muscle Function ……………………………………………………………………………….. 135

5.3.5 Exercise Sessions………………………………………………………………………………. 137
5.3.6 Data Presentation and Statistics …………………………………………………………… 138
5.4 Results………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 139
5.4.1 Participants ………………………………………………………………………………………. 139
5.4.2 Peak Force ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
5.4.3 Contractile Rate of Force Development ……………………………………………….. 140
5.4.4 Contractile Impulse …………………………………………………………………………… 143
5.4.5 Muscle Architecture ………………………………………………………………………….. 144
5.5 Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 146
5.6 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
6.0 PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELL AND SKELETAL MUSCLE
GENE EXPRESSION RESPONSES TO HIGH-POWER, HIGH-INTENSITY
RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND FEEDING DURING RECOVERY……………….. 150
6.1 Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
6.2 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
6.3 Methods ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
6.3.1 Participants ………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
6.3.2 Experimental Design …………………………………………………………………………. 156
6.3.3 Familiarisation Session ………………………………………………………………………. 159
6.3.3.1 Anthropometric Measurements ……………………………………………….. 159
6.3.3.2 Isometric Strength Testing ………………………………………………………. 159
6.3.3.3 Dynamic Strength Testing ………………………………………………………. 159
6.3.3.4 Vertical Jump Testing…………………………………………………………….. 160
6.3.3.5 High-Power Resistance Exercise Testing …………………………………… 161
6.3.4 High-Power, High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Session ………………………. 161
6.3.5 Blood Sampling and Processing ………………………………………………………….. 162
6.3.6 Muscle Tissue Collection …………………………………………………………………… 163
6.3.7 Total RNA Isolation ………………………………………………………………………….. 164
6.3.8 Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) ………………….. 165
6.3.9 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Analysis …………………………………………… 167
6.3.10 Serum Glucose Analysis…………………………………………………………………… 168
6.3.11 Serum Creatine Kinase Analysis ……………………………………………………….. 169
6.3.12 Serum Cortisol Analysis …………………………………………………………………… 169

6.3.13 Data Presentation and Statistics…………………………………………………………. 170
6.4 Results………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
6.4.1 Participants ………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
6.4.2 Dietary Intakes………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
6.4.3 High-Power, High-Intensity Resistance Exercise ………………………………….. 172
6.4.4 Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) ………………….. 174
6.4.5 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 ………………………………………………………… 176
6.4.6 Serum Glucose ………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
6.4.7 Serum Creatine Kinase ………………………………………………………………………. 178
6.4.8 Serum Cortisol ………………………………………………………………………………….. 179
6.5 Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 180
6.6 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 187
7.0 GENERAL DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………………………… 188
7.1 Molecular Responses to High-Power, High-Intensity Resistance Exercise ………… 190
7.2 Performance and Neuromuscular Responses ………………………………………………….. 194
7.3 Potential Applications …………………………………………………………………………………. 197
8.0 FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ………………………… 199
8.1 Future Directions ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
8.2 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
9.0 APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
9.1 A – Glossary of Terms ……………………………………………………………………………….. 204
9.2 B – Participant Information ………………………………………………………………………… 207
9.3 C – Research Questionnaires ………………………………………………………………………. 259
9.4 D – Study 1 Training Program Format …………………………………………………………. 267
9.5 E – Exercise Instructions ……………………………………………………………………………. 271
9.6 F – International Weightlifting Federation Technical Rules for the Snatch and Clean
and Jerk …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 275
9.7 G – Experimental Solutions ………………………………………………………………………… 279
9.8 H – Quality Control Checks and Example Data Traces ………………………………….. 283
10.0 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 295

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