232. Molecular Nutrition and Diabetes

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232. Molecular Nutrition and Diabetes

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 232

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Syllabus

Contributors xiii
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix

GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY

ASPECTS
1. Nutrition and Diabetes: General Aspects
JULIA C. WIEBE, ROSA M. SANCHEZ HERNANDEZ,
LIDIA GARCIA, ANA M. WA ̈ GNER, FIGURE BY
LAURA LOPEZRIOS, AND LITERATURE SEARCH BY
LETICIA CUELLAR
1. Introduction 3
2. Historical Perspective 3
3. Guidelines 5
4. Evidence from Clinical Trials 8
5. Further Research 13
6. Conclusions 13
References 13
2. Dietary Patterns and Insulin Resistance
ADRIANA SOUZA TORSONI, MARCIANE MILANSKI,
AND MARCIO ALBERTO TORSONI
1. Introduction 19
2. Carbohydrates 20
3. Lipids 21
4. Proteins 23
5. Concluding Remarks 25
References 26
3. b-Cell Metabolism, Insulin Production
and Secretion: Metabolic Failure Resulting
in Diabetes
YOUNAN CHEN, VINICIUS F. CRUZAT,
AND PHILIP NEWSHOLME
1. Introduction to Pancreatic b-Cell Metabolism and
Metabolic Links to Insulin Secretion 29
2. The Role of Glucose Metabolism, Fatty Acid
Metabolism, and Amino Acid Metabolism in the
Generation of Metabolic StimuluseSecretion
Coupling Factors 29
3. Nutrient Regulation of b-Cell Gene Expression 33
4. Metabolic Failure in b-Cell Dysfunction and
Onset of Diabetes 33

5. The Cross-Talk of Apoptosis with ROS and ER
Stress in b-Cell Dysfunction 37
6. Concluding Remarks 38
References 38
4. DieteGene Interactions in the Development
of Diabetes
JOSE M. ORDOVAS, SILVIA BERCIANO, VICTOR MICO,
AND LIDIA DAIMIEL-RUIZ
1. Early History of the Disease and the Seesaw of the
Dietary Therapies 41

2. Nutritional Management of Diabetes in the Twenty-
First Century 42

3. Diabetes, a Complex Disease with a Significant Genetic
Component 42
4. The Role of GeneeDiet Interactions in Diabetes
Risk 44
5. Concluding Remarks 47
References 47
5. Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes: Role
of Dietary Factors
JULIE C. ANTVORSKOV, KARSTEN BUSCHARD,
AND KNUD JOSEFSEN
1. Dietary Factors Involved in Type 1 Diabetes
Development 51
2. T1D, Celiac Disease, and Gluten Intake 51
3. Dietary Gluten 52
4. Gluten Peptides Are Resistant to Intestinal
Degradation 53
5. Dietary Gluten Influences the Development of
T1D 54
6. The Immune Response to Gluten in T1D
Patients 55
7. The Effect of Gluten on T1D Depends on Dose,
Context, and Timing 55
8. Gluten Intake, T1D, and the Intestinal
Microflora 56
9. Intestinal Alterations in Animal Models of T1D
and Human Patients 56
10. The Number of Pancreas-Infiltrating Autoreactive
T Cells Is Increased in the Intestinal Tissue 57
11. Intake of Gluten Changes Specific Immune System
Parameters 58
12. Gluten Is Found in Blood and Could Affect the
Pancreatic b Cells 59
13. Conclusion 59
References 59

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL
6. Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Molecular
Basis for Diet Supplementation
YONGGANG WANG, XIAO MIAO, JIAN SUN, AND LU CAI
1. Introduction 65
2. Oxidative Stress and Oxidation Damage in
Diabetes 65
3. Oxidative Stress and Oxidation Damage in
Diabetic Complications 66
4. Antioxidants in Diabetes: Implications for
Use of Bioactive Food Components 67
5. Conclusions 70
Acknowledgments 70
References 70
7. Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Skeletal
Muscle Mass and Quality
DAVID SALA AND ANTONIO ZORZANO
1. Introduction 73
2. Regulation of Protein Degradation in Skeletal Muscle 74
3. Skeletal Muscle Mass in Insulin Resistance and T2D 76
4. TP53INP2 and its Role in Autophagy 77
5. TP53INP2 in Skeletal Muscle and T2D 78
6. Skeletal Muscle Quality in Insulin Resistance
and T2D 78
7. Mitochondrial Dynamics, Mitophagy, and Insulin
Resistance 79
8. Concluding Remarks 80
Acknowledgments 81
References 81
8. Mechanisms Whereby Whole Grain
Cereals Modulate the Prevention
of Type 2 Diabetes
KNUD ERIK BACH KNUDSEN, MERETE LINDBERG
HARTVIGSEN, METTE SKOU HEDEMANN, AND
KJELD HERMANSEN
1. Introduction 87
2. Whole Grains versus Refined Flour 87
3. Meta-Analyses and Epidemiological Studies 88
4. Intervention Studies 92
5. Mechanisms of Action 93
6. Conclusions 99
References 99
9. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
(PPARs) in Glucose Control
FAUSTO CHIAZZA AND MASSIMO COLLINO
1. PPAR: An Overview 105
2. Molecular Mechanisms of PPAR Activation 105
3. The Role of PPARs in the Control of Glucose
Metabolism 106

4. Dietary-Derived PPAR Ligands as Supplementary
Strategies in Glucose Control 109
5. Conclusions 111
References 111
10. High-Fat Diets and b-Cell Dysfunction:
Molecular Aspects
CARLA BEATRIZ COLLARES-BUZATO
1. Introduction 115
2. Biology of the b Cell 116
3. Compensatory Response of the b Cell to High-Fat
Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance 118
4. High-Fat Diet and b-cell Failure and Death 122
5. Concluding Remarks 126
Acknowledgments 127
References 127
11. Native Fruits, Anthocyanins in
Nutraceuticals, and the Insulin Receptor/
Insulin Receptor Substrate-1/Akt/Forkhead
Box Protein Pathway
NATHALIA ROMANELLI VICENTE DRAGANO,
AND ANNE Y CASTRO MARQUES
1. Anthocyanins: General Characteristics 131
2. Anthocyanin Sources in Foods of Plant Origin 132
3. Health Effects of Anthocyanins 135
4. Insulin Signaling Pathway 137
5. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance 138
6. Insulin Sensitizing and Antidiabetic Properties of
Anthocyanins 140
7. Concluding Remarks 141
References 142
12. Influence of Dietary Factors on Gut
Microbiota: The Role on Insulin Resistance
and Diabetes Mellitus
GEMMA XIFRA, EDUARDO ESTEVE, WIFREDO RICART,
AND JOSE ́ MANUEL FERNA ́ NDEZ-REAL
1. Introduction 147
2. Influence of Dietary Factors on Gut
Microbiota 147
3. Impact of Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Exercise
on Gut Microbiota 149
4. Gut Microbiota Interactions with Insulin
Resistance and Diabetes 149
5. Gut Microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes 151
6. Future Perspectives 152
References 152
13. Molecular Aspects of Glucose Regulation
of Pancreatic b Cells
ROSA GASA, RAMON GOMIS, ANNA NOVIALS,
AND JOAN-MARC SERVITJA
1. Introduction 155
2. Intracellular Glucose Signaling 155
3. Glucose as a Mitogenic Signal for b Cells 158
4. Glucose Signaling and b-Cell Transcription 161
5. Glucotoxicity 164
6. Concluding Remarks 164
References 165
14. Metals in Diabetes: Zinc Homeostasis
in the Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes
SHUDONG WANG, GILBERT C. LIU,
KUPPER A. WINTERGERST, AND LU CAI
1. Introduction 169
2. Zn and Insulin 169
3. A Potential Risk of Zn Deficiency for
the Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes 171
4. Effect of Diabetes on Zn Homeostasis 172
5. Prevention and/or Improvement of Metabolic
Syndrome and Diabetes by Zn Supplementation
as well as Possible Mechanisms 174
6. Conclusions 179
7. Potential Clinical Implication for the
Management of Diabetic Patients 179
Acknowledgment 179
References 179
15. Cocoa Flavonoids and Insulin Signaling
MARIA A ́ NGELES MARTIN, LUIS GOYA, AND SONIA RAMOS
1. Introduction 183
2. Physiology of Insulin Action 183
3. Pathophysiology of Insulin Action 184
4. Dietary Flavonoids 184
5. Cocoa Flavonoids 185
6. Cocoa Flavonoids and Insulin Action 187
7. Conclusions 193
List of Abbreviations 194
Acknowledgments 194
References 194
16. Dietary Proanthocyanidin Modulation
of Pancreatic b Cells: Molecular Aspects
MONTSERRAT PINENT, NOEMI ́ GONZA ́ LEZ-ABUI ́N, MAYTE BLAY,
AND ANNA ARDE ́VOL
1. Proanthocyanidins: A Brief Description 197
2. Proanthocyanidins and Type 1 Diabetes 198
3. Type 2 Diabetes 199
4. Proanthocyanidin Effects in Glucose Homeostasis on
Insulin Resistance and on T2D 200
5. Proanthocyanidin Effects on Insulin Sensing Tissues 201
6. Proanthocyanidin Effects on b-Cell Functionality:
Control of Insulin Production 202
7. Proanthocyanidin Effects on the Incretin System 205
8. Human Studies 206
9. Conclusions 206
Acknowledgments 206
References 206

17. Dietary Whey Protein and Type 2
Diabetes: Molecular Aspects
JAIME AMAYA-FARFAN, CAROLINA S. MOURA,
PRISCILA N. MORATO, AND PABLO C.B. LOLLO
1. Introduction 211
2. Constituents of the WP 212
3. Studies in Support of the Antihyperglycemic
Effect of Whey 212
4. What Do Exercise and Dietary Protein
Have to Do with Hyperglycemia? 212
5. Type, Amount, and Form of Taking the Protein 214
6. Whey Proteins and the Incretins 216
7. Whey Peptides, Stress, and the Heat-Shock Proteins 216
8. Possible Strategies for a More Rational
Use of Whey Peptides 218
9. Conclusions 219
Acknowledgments 219
References 219
18. Dietary Fatty Acids and C-Reactive Protein
GIOVANNI ANNUZZI, ETTORE GRIFFO,
GIUSEPPINA COSTABILE, AND LUTGARDA BOZZETTO
1. Introduction 221
2. CRP and Diabetes 221
3. Diet and CRP 223
4. Dietary Fatty Acids and CRP 224
5. Conclusions 231
References 232
19. Alcoholic Beverage and Insulin Resistancee
Mediated Degenerative Diseases of Liver and
Brain: Cellular and Molecular Effects
SUZANNE M. DE LA MONTE, SUSAN HUSE, AND MIRAN KIM
1. Overview 237
2. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease 238
3. Alcohol-Related Neurodegeneration 242
4. Concluding Remarks 246
Acknowledgment 247
References 247

III
GENETIC MACHINERY
AND ITS FUNCTION
20. Genetic Variants and Risk of Diabetes
VALERIYA LYSSENKO
1. Introduction 255
2. Genetic Variants for T2D 256
3. Genetic Variants for Insulin Secretion and Action 256
4. Growth Factor Receptor-Bound Protein 10 258

5. Rare and Low-Frequency Variants 258
6. Genetic Prediction of T2D 258
7. Future Directions 259
References 259
21. MicroRNA and Diabetes Mellitus
SOFIA SALO ̈ , JULIAN GEIGER, ANJA E. SØRENSEN,
AND LOUISE T. DALGAARD
1. Introduction 263
2. miRNA Biogenesis 263
3. miRNAs Acting in b-Cell Development 264
4. miRNAs Acting on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin
Secretion 265
5. Regulation of Insulin Transcription by miRNAs 266
6. b-Cell Mass in Obesity and Pregnancy 266
7. b-Cell Failure in T2D 267
8. miRNAs in Skeletal Muscle, Adipose Tissue, and Liver 268
9. miRNAs Regulated by Nutritional State
and Specific Ingredients 270
10. miRNAs as Circulating Biomarkers 271
11. Conclusions and Perspectives 272
List of Abbreviations 272
Acknowledgments 272
References 272
22. Diabetes Mellitus and Intestinal
Niemann-Pick C1eLike 1 Gene Expression
POOJA MALHOTRA, RAVINDER K. GILL, PRADEEP K. DUDEJA,
AND WADDAH A. ALREFAI
1. Cholesterol Homeostasis 277
2. Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption 278
3. Intestinal NPC1L1 Cholesterol Transporter 281
4. Transcriptional Regulation of NPC1L1 282
5. NPC1L1 and Diseases 284
6. NPC1L1 and Diabetes 285
7. Conclusion 287
Acknowledgment 287
References 287
23. Dietary Long Chain Omega-3
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and
Inflammatory Gene Expression in
Type 2 Diabetes
JENCY THOMAS AND MANOHAR L. GARG
1. Introduction 291
2. Inflammation in T2D 291
3. Inflammatory Gene Expression in T2D 292
4. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on
Inflammation and T2D 293
5. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on
Neuroinflammation in Diabetes 294
6. Conclusion 295
References 296

24. Polymorphism, Carbohydrates, Fat,
and Type 2 Diabetes
JOSE LOPEZ-MIRANDA AND CARMEN MARIN
1. Introduction 301
2. Effect of Dietary Carbohydrates and Fat on T2D 301
3. Polymorphisms and T2D 303
4. Interaction between Carbohydrates, Fat, and
Gene Polymorphisms 305
5. Future Perspectives 307
Acknowledgments 308
References 308
25. Genetic Basis Linking Variants for
Diabetes and Obesity with Breast Cancer
SHAIK MOHAMMAD NAUSHAD, M. JANAKI RAMAIAH,
AND VIJAY KUMAR KUTALA
1. Obesity and Breast Cancer 313
2. Insulin Resistance and Breast Cancer 313
3. Adiponectin and Adiponectin Receptor 1 Genes 314
4. Leptin and Leptin Receptor Genes 314
5. Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene 315
6. Obesity, Breast Cancer, and Methylation 316
7. Nutrigenomics Perspective to Reduce
Obesity-Mediated Breast Cancer Risk 316
8. Conclusions 316
References 316
26. Vitamin D Status, Genetics, and Diabetes
Risk
DHARAMBIR K. SANGHERA AND PIERS R. BLACKETT
1. Vitamin D Metabolism and Epidemiology 319
2. Vitamin D Deficiency and Diabetes Risk 320
3. Genetic Basis of Vitamin D Deficiency 323
4. Conclusions and Future Directions 325
Acknowledgments 327
References 327
27. NRF2-Mediated Gene Regulation
and Glucose Homeostasis
YOKO YAGISHITA, AKIRA URUNO, AND MASAYUKI YAMAMOTO
1. Introduction 331
2. Detoxification Processes in Cells 331
3. Antioxidative Stress Response Systems in Cells 333
4. Anti-inflammatory Function of NRF2 334
5. Molecular Basis of the KEAP1-NRF2 System Function 335
6. Pancreatic b Cells and Oxidative and
Nitrosative Stresses 336
7. Roles of NRF2 on Antioxidative Response in
Pancreatic b Cells 337
8. NRF2 Regulation of Inflammation and Other Cellular
Responses in Pancreatic b Cells 338
9. Glucose Homeostasis in Insulin-Sensitive Tissues 339

10. Nutrition and NRF2 Inducing Phytochemicals 341
11. Conclusion 343
References 343
28. Hepatic Mitochondrial Fatty Acid
Oxidation and Type 2 Diabetes
ABDELHAK MANSOURI, WOLFGANG LANGHANS,
JEAN GIRARD, AND CARINA PRIP-BUUS
1. Introduction 349
2. Lipogenesis as a Target to Reduce Liver
Triacylglycerol Content 350
3. Stimulation of the Peroxisome
Proliferator-activated Receptor-a 351
4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-g
Coactivator-1 as Target to Stimulate Hepatic
Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation 351
5. Targeting Liver Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation to
Improve Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity 352

6. General Conclusion 353
References 354
29. Current Knowledge on the Role of Wnt
Signaling Pathway in Glucose Homeostasis
TIANRU JIN
1. Introduction of the Wnt Signaling Pathway 357
2. Recognition of Wnt Signaling Pathway
Components as Diabetes Risk Genes 359
3. TCF7L2 as a Diabetic Risk Gene and Its Role in
Glucose Homeostasis 361
4. Summary and Perspectives 363
Acknowledgments 365
References 365
Index 371

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