231. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training

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231. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training

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Syllabus

Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… viii
List of Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix
List of Abbreviations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. x
Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Rationale …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.3 Hypotheses………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Chapter 2 Supplemental Review of Literature ……………………………………………………………….. 4
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
2.2 Left Ventricular Systolic Function………………………………………………………………………….. 5
2.2.1 Indices of Myocardial Contractility ……………………………………………………………… 6
2.3 Left Ventricular Diastolic Function ………………………………………………………………………… 7
2.3.1 Indices of Left ventricular Diastolic Function ……………………………………………….. 9
2.4 Non-invasive Assessment of the Left Ventricle: Echocardiography……………………………. 9
2.4.1 Motion-mode Echocardiography ……………………………………………………………….. 10
2.4.2 Two-dimensional Echocardiography ………………………………………………………….. 11
2.4.3 Doppler Echocardiography ……………………………………………………………………….. 11
2.4.4 Speckle Tracking Imaging: Strain and Strain Rate, Torsion and Recoil ………….. 13
2.5 The Traditional Modality of Endurance Training……………………………………………………. 14
2.6 Long-term Myocardial Adaptations to Endurance Training……………………………………… 15
2.6.1 Cardiac Structure …………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

2.6.2 Cardiac Function……………………………………………………………………………………… 19
2.6.3 Blood Volume…………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
2.7 The Importance of Exercise Intensity ……………………………………………………………………. 32
2.7.1 Association Between Exercise Intensity and V ̇ O2peak…………………………………. 32
2.7.2 Cardioprotective Benefits of High-intensity Training …………………………………… 34
2.8 High-intensity Interval Training …………………………………………………………………………… 35
2.9 Long-term Myocardial Adaptations to HIT……………………………………………………………. 36
2.9.1 Evidence from Experimental Models …………………………………………………………. 36
2.9.2 Evidence from Healthy Humans………………………………………………………………… 38
2.9.3 Clinical Utility of High-intensity Interval Training in Heart Disease ……………… 39
2.10 The Short-term Endurance Training Model…………………………………………………………… 45
2.11 Short-term Adaptations in Response to Continuous Moderate-intensity Training………. 45
2.11.1 Blood Volume…………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
2.11.2 Cardiac Structure and Function …………………………………………………………………. 46
2.12 Short-term Adaptations in Response to High-intensity Interval Training ………………….. 49
2.13 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
Chapter 3 Manuscript for Journal Submission …………………………………………………………….. 53
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
3.2 Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
3.2.1 Participants……………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
3.2.2 General Experimental Design ……………………………………………………………………. 55
3.2.3 Peak Oxygen Consumption……………………………………………………………………….. 56
3.2.4 Blood Sampling ………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
3.2.5 Left Ventricular Function …………………………………………………………………………. 58
3.2.6 Exercise Training …………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
3.2.7 Statistical analysis……………………………………………………………………………………. 61

3.3 Results………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
3.3.1 Subjects………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
3.3.2 Hematocrit and Changes in Plasma Volume ……………………………………………….. 63
3.3.3 Peak Oxygen Consumption……………………………………………………………………….. 65
3.3.4 Left Ventricular Morphology…………………………………………………………………….. 68
3.3.5 Hemodynamic Responses to Training ………………………………………………………… 70
3.3.6 Diastolic function at rest and during submaximal exercise ……………………………. 75
3.3.7 Myocardial strain and strain rate at rest and during submaximal exercise ……….. 81
3.4 Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
3.4.1 Peak Aerobic Capacity……………………………………………………………………………… 84
3.4.2 Plasma Volume Expansion ……………………………………………………………………….. 85
3.4.3 Systolic Function …………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
3.4.4 Diastolic Function……………………………………………………………………………………. 87
3.4.5 Limitations……………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
3.4.6 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
Chapter 4 Limitations, Future Perspectives, and Conclusions……………………………………….. 90
4.1 Study Limitations……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
4.1.1 Echocardiography ……………………………………………………………………………………. 90
4.1.2 Participants……………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
4.1.3 Plasma Volume ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
4.2 Future Perspectives and Clinical Implication …………………………………………………………. 92
4.3 Study Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
Copyright Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………………. 123

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