22.Maintain Pool & Spa

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22.Maintain Pool & Spa

 

 

CATEGORY: Spa Massage – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 22

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

Syllabus

Acknowledgments……………………………………. 4
Quick start for pool operators ………………….. 5
A. Chemical criteria ……………………………………….. 5
B. Chemical testing ……………………………………….. 5
C. Microbiological criteria ……………………………….. 5
D. Fact sheets……………………………………………….. 5
E. Pool occupiers information sheet………………….. 5
Chapter 1:
Introduction …………………………………………….. 6
1.1 Overview………………………………………………….. 6
1.2 Purpose……………………………………………………. 6
1.3 Scope and application ………………………………… 6
1.4 Disease risk from swimming pools………………… 7
1.5 Legislation………………………………………………… 7
1.6 Australian Pesticides and Veterinary
Medicines Authority (APVMA)……………………… 8
1.7 NSW Health website ………………………………….. 8
Chapter 2:
Microbial health risks and transmission…….. 9
2.1 Overview………………………………………………….. 9
2.2 Micro-organisms……………………………………….. 9
2.2.1 Viral pathogens……………………………………….. 9
2.2.2 Bacterial pathogens………………………………… 10
2.2.3 Protozoan pathogens……………………………….11
2.2.4 Fungal pathogens…………………………………….12
2.3 Disease transmission theory…………………………13
2.4 Transmission of micro-organisms
in swimming pools…………………………………….13
2.5 Conclusions………………………………………………13
Chapter 3:
Microbiological criteria and sampling ……… 15
3.1 Overview………………………………………………….15
3.2 Indicator micro-organisms…………………………..15
3.3 Microbiological criteria ……………………………….15
3.3.1 Heterotrophic plate count (HPC)……………….. 16
3.3.2 Escherichia coli (E. coli)……………………………. 16
3.3.3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa………………………… 16

3.4 Microbiological sampling…………………………… 16
3.4.1 Sampling technique………………………………… 16
3.4.2 Timeliness ………………………………………………17
3.4.3 Interpretation………………………………………….17
3.4.4 Chemical criteria ……………………………………..17
3.4.5 Database………………………………………………..17
3.5 Micro-organism risk factors……………………….. 18
Chapter 4:
Disinfection……………………………………………. 19
4.1 Overview………………………………………………….19
4.2 Disinfectant properties……………………………….19
4.3 Disinfection concepts …………………………………19
4.4 Characteristics of various disinfectants…………. 20
4.4.1 Chlorine-based disinfectants that produce
hypochlorous acid ………………………………….. 20
(i) Free available chlorine (free chlorine)…………. 21
(ii) The effect of pH on chlorine
disinfection power …………………………………. 21
(iii) Total chlorine, free chlorine and combined
chlorine………………………………………………… 22
(iv) Bather pollution and the formation of
chloramines…………………………………………… 22
(v) Reducing chloramines …………………………….. 23
(vi) Stabilised chlorine – cyanurate
products and cyanuric acid………………………. 23
(vii) Electrolytic generation of
hypochlorous acid ………………………………….. 24
4.4.2 Bromine-based disinfectants ……………………. 24
(i) The hydrolysis of bromine to form hypobromous
acid……………………………………………………… 25
(ii) The formation of bromamines………………….. 25
(iii) The effect of pH on bromine
disinfection power …………………………………. 25
(iv) Isocyanuric acid and bromine …………………… 26
(v) Breakpoint bromination and
super-bromination………………………………….. 26
4.4.3 Chlorine dioxide …………………………………….. 26
4.5 Other disinfection systems…………………………. 26
4.6 Disinfection by-products (DPBs)………………….. 27

Chapter 5:
Disinfection chemical criteria, other
chemicals, sampling and monitoring……….. 28
5.1 Overview………………………………………………… 28
5.2 Chemical criteria ……………………………………… 28
5.2.1 Dosing …………………………………………………. 28
5.2.2 Chlorine systems chemical criteria …………….. 28
5.2.3 Bromine systems chemical criteria …………….. 28
5.2.4 Alternate disinfection systems………………….. 30
5.2.5 Oxidation-reduction potential ………………….. 30
5.2.6 Pool operating periods……………………………. 30
5.3 Other chemicals used in swimming pools…….. 30
5.3.1 Chemicals for raising pH………………………….. 30
(i) Soda ash (sodium carbonate Na2CO3)………….. 30
(ii) Bicarb (sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3
– pH buffer) ………………………………………….. 30
5.3.2 Chemicals for lowering pH ………………………. 31
(i) Dry acid (sodium bisulphate NaHSO4) ………….. 31
(ii) Hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid HCl) …………. 31
(iii) Carbon dioxide (CO2) ……………………………… 31
5.3.3 Other chemicals …………………………………….. 31
(i) Calcium chloride (CaCl2)………………………….. 31
(ii) Potassium monopersulphate (KHSO4)………….. 31
(iii) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)……………………….. 31
(iv) Ozone (O3) ……………………………………………. 31
(v) Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3.5H2O)……….. 32
(vi) Isocyanuric acid (C3N3O3H3)
(Cyanuric Acid) ………………………………………. 32
(vii) Algaecides…………………………………………….. 32
(viii) Flocculants……………………………………………. 32
5.4 Health and safety issues of chemicals ………….. 33
5.5 Disinfection by-products …………………………… 33
5.6 Frequency of pool testing………………………….. 33
5.7 Sampling location ……………………………………. 35
5.8 Testing equipment and testing …………………… 35
5.9 Other chemical and physical parameters…………..36
5.10 Record keeping ……………………………………….. 36
Chapter 6:
Managing water quality ………………………….. 37
6.1 Overview………………………………………………… 37
6.2 Chlorine demand …………………………………….. 37
6.3 Chemical dosing control equipment ……………. 37
6.3.1 Continuous metered disinfectant
dosing system ……………………………………….. 37
6.3.2 Oxidation-reduction potential ………………….. 38
6.3.3 Direct chlorine residual measurement
(amperometric)………………………………………. 39
6.3.4 Automatic controllers……………………………… 40
6.3.5 pH probes…………………………………………….. 40

6.4 Water balancing………………………………………. 40
6.4.1 Overview………………………………………………. 40
6.4.2 pH……………………………………………………….. 40
6.4.3 Total alkalinity ……………………………………….. 40
6.4.4 Calcium hardness…………………………………… 40
6.4.5 Temperature……………………………………………41
6.4.6 Langelier saturation index …………………………41
6.4.7 Corrosive water – The Ryznar index…………… 42
6.5 Backwashing of sand filters……………………….. 42
6.5.1 Reuse of backwash water (externally)……………. 42
6.5.2 Recycling of swimming pool
backwash wastewater…………………………….. 43
6.6 Minimising pool pollution………………………….. 43
6.6.1 Restricting bather load and
encouraging bather hygiene…………………….. 43
6.6.2 Total dissolved solids………………………………. 43
6.6.3 Water sources ……………………………………….. 44
(i) Mains water………………………………………….. 44
(ii) Borewater …………………………………………….. 44
(iii) Rainwater (roof water) harvesting……………… 44
6.7 Prevention and control of chloramines
in indoor aquatic centres…………………………… 45
6.7.1 Education……………………………………………… 45
6.7.2 Superchlorination…………………………………… 45
6.7.3 Shock dosing…………………………………………. 45
(i) Chlorine dioxide …………………………………….. 45
(ii) Potassium monopersulphate ……………………. 45
6.7.4 Ultra violet light treatment systems …………… 45
6.7.5 Ozone ………………………………………………….. 46
6.7.6 Granulated activated carbon filters……………. 46
6.7.7 Zeolite………………………………………………….. 46
6.7.8 Ventilation – indoor………………………………… 46
Chapter 7:
Design, construction and amenities………… 48
7.1 Overview and introduction………………………… 48
7.2 Circulation and filtration……………………………. 48
7.2.1 Surface water removal…………………………….. 48
7.2.2 Bather load …………………………………………… 49
7.2.3 Circulation rate and pool turnover…………….. 50
7.2.4 Water distribution – zonal and non-zonal ……………51
7.2.5 Separate plant for high risk pools……………….51
7.2.6 Dye Testing …………………………………………….51
7.2.7 Entrapment prevention……………………………..51
7.2.8 Upgrading existing outdoor pools………………51
7.3 Filtration systems……………………………………….51
7.3.1 Element filters (cartridge filters)………………… 52
7.3.2 Granular filters (typically sand filters)…………….52
7.3.3 Ultrafine filters incorporating diatomaceous
earth filters …………………………………………… 52

PAGE 4 NSW Health Public Swimming Pool and Spa Pool Advisory Document
7.4 Maintenance of swimming pools
and spa pools………………………………………….. 53
7.5 Change rooms, pool hall and amenities ………….. 53
7.5.1 Floors, walls and change areas…………………. 53
7.5.2 Light and ventilation……………………………….. 53
7.5.3 Showers……………………………………………….. 53
7.5.4 Hand basins ………………………………………….. 54
7.5.5 Toilets (water closets) ……………………………… 55
7.5.6 Baby nappy change / parent facilities………….. 55
7.5.7 Waste removal (garbage)…………………………. 55
7.5.8 Storage of hazardous and dangerous
chemicals……………………………………………… 55
7.5.9 Water temperature…………………………………. 55
7.5.10 Towel and costume hire ………………………….. 55
7.5.11 First aid ………………………………………………… 55
7.5.12 Shade…………………………………………………… 56
7.5.13 Glass……………………………………………………. 56
7.5.14 Kiosk……………………………………………………. 56
Chapter 8:
Cryptosporidium risk management…………. 57
8.1 Overview………………………………………………… 57
8.2 Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis……………….. 57
8.3 Control measures and strategies…………………. 57
8.4 Swimmer hygiene practices……………………….. 58
8.4.1 Personal hygiene ……………………………………. 58
8.4.2 Awareness of infants who are not
toilet trained …………………………………………. 58
8.5 Education……………………………………………….. 59
8.6 Operational control and management…………. 60
8.6.1 Barriers used in pool operations……………….. 60
(i) Filters…………………………………………………… 61
(ii) Disinfection…………………………………………… 61
8.6.2 Water sampling for Cryptosporidium………….. 61
Chapter 9:
Pool designer and operator
competencies………………………………………… 62
9.1 Overview………………………………………………… 62
9.2 Pool designers…………………………………………. 62
9.3 Operator competencies…………………………….. 62
9.4 Formal operator qualifications……………………. 62
9.5 Pool safety qualifications…………………………… 62
Chapter 10:
Health risk management planning…………… 63
10.1 Overview………………………………………………… 63
10.2 Public health risk ……………………………………… 63
10.2.1 Risk identification…………………………………… 63
10.2.2 Risk assessment / characterisation …………….. 63

10.2.3 Risk management plan……………………………. 64
10.2.4 Implementation……………………………………… 64
10.3 Dynamics of risk analysis …………………………… 64
10.4 Other plans…………………………………………….. 66
10.5 Descriptive risk assessment
and management of pools and spas……………. 66
Chapter 11:
Legislation …………………………………………….. 67
11.1 Overview………………………………………………… 67
11.2 The Public Health Act 2010 ……………………….. 67
11.3 The Public Health Regulation 2012 ……………… 67
11.4 Schedule 1 of the Regulation……………………… 68
11.5 Enforcement of the Act and Regulation……….. 68
Appendix A:
Breakpoint chlorination
(see section 4.4.1)…………………………………… 69
1. Combined chlorine and chloramines………………… 69
2. Continual breakpoint chlorination theory …………. 70
3. Shock breakpoint chlorination………………………… 71
Appendix B:
Sample log sheet …………………………………… 73
Appendix C:
Components to consider in recycling
swimming pool backwash water……………… 75
Appendix D:
Components to consider
in water harvesting…………………………………. 77
Appendix E:
Descriptive risk assessment and
management of pools and spas ………………. 79
Glossary / Abbreviations………………………… 81
References ……………………………………………. 84
Bibliography ………………………………………….. 87

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