214. Intakes For Vitamin C, E, Selenium & Carotenoids

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214. Intakes For Vitamin C, E, Selenium & Carotenoids

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 214

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Syllabus

SUMMARY 1
What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?, 2
Approach for Setting Dietary Reference Intakes, 6
Nutrient Functions and the Indicators Used to Estimate
Requirements for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium,
and the Carotenoids, 12
Criteria and Proposed Values for Tolerable Upper
Intake Levels, 13
Using Dietary Reference Intakes, 14
Definition of a Dietary Antioxidant, 17
Evidence of Oxidative Stress and the Risk of Chronic
Degenerative Disease, 17
Recommendations, 19
1 INTRODUCTION TO DIETARY REFERENCE
INTAKES 21
What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?, 21
Categories of Dietary Reference Intakes, 22
Parameters for Dietary Reference Intakes, 27
Summary, 33
References, 33

2 VITAMIN C, VITAMIN E, SELENIUM, AND
ß-CAROTENE AND OTHER CAROTENOIDS:
OVERVIEW, ANTIOXIDANT DEFINITION, AND
RELATIONSHIP TO CHRONIC DISEASE 35
Overview, 35
Definition and Criteria for a Dietary Antioxidant, 42
Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, and Chronic Disease, 44
Conclusions, 51
References, 52
3 VITAMIN C, VITAMIN E, SELENIUM, AND
ß-CAROTENE AND OTHER CAROTENOIDS:
METHODS 58
Methodological Considerations, 58
Estimates of Laboratory Values, 67
Nutrient Intake Estimates, 67
Dietary Intakes in the United States and Canada, 69
Summary, 71
References, 71
4 A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS FOR
NUTRIENTS 73
Background, 73
Model for Derivation of Tolerable Upper
Intake Levels, 75
Risk Assessment and Food Safety, 75
Application of the Risk Assessment Model to
Nutrients, 80
Steps in the Development of Tolerable Upper
Intake Levels, 84
Intake Assessment, 92
Risk Characterization, 92
References, 94
5 VITAMIN C 95
Summary, 95
Background Information, 95
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the
Requirement for Vitamin C, 101
Factors Affecting the Vitamin C Requirement, 128
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group, 134
Intake of Vitamin C, 154

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, 155
Research Recommendations for Vitamin C, 165
References, 167
6 VITAMIN E 186
Summary, 186
Background Information, 187
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement
for a-Tocopherol, 203
Factors Affecting the Vitamin E Requirement, 224
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group, 226
Intake of Vitamin E, 243
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, 249
Research Recommendations for Vitamin E, 260
References, 262
7 SELENIUM 284
Summary, 284
Background Information, 284
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the
Requirement for Selenium, 287
Factors Affecting the Selenium Requirement, 291
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group, 292
Intake of Selenium, 308
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, 311
Research Recommendations for Selenium, 318
References, 319
8 ß-CAROTENE AND OTHER CAROTENOIDS 325
Summary, 325
Background Information, 326
Selection of Possible Indicators for Estimating the
Requirement for ß-Carotene and Other
Carotenoids, 331
Factors Affecting Carotenoid Bioavailability, 354
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group, 358
Intake of Carotenoids, 360
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, 366
Research Recommendations for ß-Carotene and
Other Carotenoids, 371
References, 372

9 USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES 383
Overview, 383
Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Individuals, 384
Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups, 387
Planning Nutrient Intakes of Individuals, 392
Planning Nutrient Intakes of Groups, 392
Nutrient-Specific Considerations, 393
Summary, 399
References, 399
10 A RESEARCH AGENDA 401
Approach, 401
Major Knowledge Gaps, 402
The Research Agenda, 406
APPENDIXES
A Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary
Reference Intakes, 409
B Acknowledgments, 413
C Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),
1988–1994, 416
D Dietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of
Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, 432
E Canadian Dietary Intake Data, 1993, 1995, 438
F Serum Values from the Third National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),
1988–1994, 440
G Options for Dealing with Uncertainties, 458
H Glossary and Acronyms, 463
I Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee
Members, 469
INDEX 483
SUMMARY TABLE, Dietary Reference Intakes:
Recommended Intakes for Individuals, 507

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