69. Human Physiology For Pharmacy

You are here: Home / Uncategorized / 69. Human Physiology For Pharmacy

69. Human Physiology For Pharmacy

69. Human Physiology For Pharmacy

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 69

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Chapter 1 Physiology and the concept of homeostasis………………………. 1
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Homeostasis………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.3 Negative feedback ………………………………………………………………………. 4
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………….6
Chapter 2 Plasma membrane ………………………………………………………………. 7
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………… 7
2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………….7
2.2 Structure and function of plasma membrane……………………………… 7
2.3 Membrane transport …………………………………………………………………. 11
2.4 Passive diffusion through the membrane …………………………………. 11
2.5 Osmosis …………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.6 Mediated transport……………………………………………………………………. 13
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Chapter 3 Membrane potential………………………………………………………….. 17
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………. 17
3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………. 17
3.2 Development of resting membrane potential……………………………. 18
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………. 21
Chapter 4 Electrical signals ……………………………………………………………….. 23
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………. 23
4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………. 23
4.2 Graded potentials ……………………………………………………………………… 23
4.3 Action potentials……………………………………………………………………….. 25
4.4 Conduction of the action potential……………………………………………. 28
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………. 33
Chapter 5 Synaptic transmission……………………………………………………….. 35
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………. 35
5.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………. 35
5.2 Chemical synapses ……………………………………………………………………. 35
5.3 Summation………………………………………………………………………………… 38
5.4 Interconnections between neurons ……………………………………………. 40
5.5 Factors affecting synaptic transmission …………………………………….. 41
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………. 43
Chapter 6 The nervous system ………………………………………………………….. 45
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………. 45
6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………. 45
6.2 Classes of neurons…………………………………………………………………….. 46
6.3 Major levels of CNS function ……………………………………………………. 47
6.4 The brain …………………………………………………………………………………… 49
6.4.1 Cerebrum…………………………………………………………………….. 49
6.4.2 Functional regions of the cerebral cortex…………………….. 51
6.4.3 Basal ganglia……………………………………………………………….. 55
6.4.4 Thalamus …………………………………………………………………….. 56
6.4.5 Hypothalamus …………………………………………………………….. 56
6.4.6 Brainstem…………………………………………………………………….. 57
6.4.7 Cerebellum ………………………………………………………………….. 58
6.5 Blood–Brain Barrier…………………………………………………………………… 60
6.6 Cerebrospinal fluid……………………………………………………………………. 61
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………. 62
Chapter 7 The spinal cord …………………………………………………………………. 63
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………. 63
7.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………. 63
7.2 Functions of the spinal cord ……………………………………………………… 65
7.3 Composition of the cord……………………………………………………………. 65
7.3.1 Gray matter…………………………………………………………………. 66
7.3.2 White matter ……………………………………………………………….. 68
7.4 Spinal reflexes……………………………………………………………………………. 72
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………. 75
Chapter 8 Pain …………………………………………………………………………………… 77
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………. 77
8.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………. 77
8.2 Nociceptors ……………………………………………………………………………….. 78
8.3 Hyperalgesia……………………………………………………………………………… 80
8.4 Neurotransmitters of nociceptive afferent fibers……………………….. 81
8.5 Pain pathway…………………………………………………………………………….. 81
8.6 Endogenous analgesic system …………………………………………………… 82
8.7 Cutaneous pain …………………………………………………………………………. 83
8.8 Deep somatic pain ……………………………………………………………………. 84
8.9 Visceral pain ……………………………………………………………………………… 85
8.10 Referred pain…………………………………………………………………………… 85
8.11 Phantom pain …………………………………………………………………………. 86

8.12 Pharmacologic treatment of pain…………………………………………….. 87
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………. 88
Chapter 9 The autonomic nervous system …………………………………………. 91
Study objectives………………………………………………………………………………. 91
9.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………..91
9.2 Regulation of autonomic nervous system activity ……………………. 92
9.3 Efferent pathways of autonomic nervous system……………………… 93
9.4 Divisions of autonomic nervous system …………………………………… 94
9.5 Sympathetic division …………………………………………………………………94
9.6 Parasympathetic division ………………………………………………………….. 97
9.7 Neurotransmitters of autonomic nervous system……………………… 97
9.8 Termination of neurotransmitter activity …………………………………. 99
9.9 Receptors for autonomic neurotransmitters …………………………….. 99
9.10 Functions of the autonomic nervous system …………………………. 103
9.11 Adrenal medulla ……………………………………………………………………..107
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
Chapter 10 The endocrine system……………………………………………………. 111
Study objectives…………………………………………………………………………….. 111
10.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 111
10.2 Biochemical classification of hormones …………………………………. 112
10.3 Transport of hormones ………………………………………………………….. 114
10.4 Functional classification of hormones……………………………………. 115
10.5 Hormone interactions ……………………………………………………………. 115
10.6 Mechanisms of hormone action …………………………………………….. 116
10.7 Pituitary gland ………………………………………………………………………. 119
10.8 Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland…….. 120
10.9 Negative feedback control of hormone release ……………………… 124
10.10 Hormones of the neurohypophysis……………………………………… 124
10.11 Hormones of the adenohypophysis……………………………………… 126
10.12 Thyroid gland………………………………………………………………………. 129
10.13 Parathyroid glands ………………………………………………………………. 131
10.14 Adrenal glands…………………………………………………………………….. 132
10.15 Pancreas……………………………………………………………………………….. 136
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………138
Chapter 11 Skeletal muscle……………………………………………………………….. 139
Study objectives…………………………………………………………………………….. 139
11.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 139
11.2 Isometric vs. isotonic contraction…………………………………………… 140
11.3 Structure of skeletal muscle …………………………………………………… 141
11.4 Neuromuscular junction ………………………………………………………… 143
11.5 Mechanism of contraction ……………………………………………………… 143
11.6 Sources of ATP for muscle contraction ………………………………….. 146
11.7 Muscle fatigue ……………………………………………………………………….. 147

11.8 Oxygen debt…………………………………………………………………………… 147
11.9 Types of muscle fibers……………………………………………………………. 148
11.10 Muscle mechanics ………………………………………………………………… 149
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 153
Chapter 12 Smooth muscle………………………………………………………………. 155
Study objectives…………………………………………………………………………….. 155
12.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 155
12.2 Structure of smooth muscle …………………………………………………… 155
12.3 Calcium and the mechanism of contraction ………………………….. 157
12.4 Smooth muscle contraction is slow and prolonged ………………. 158
12.5 Types of smooth muscle ………………………………………………………… 158
12.6 Factors influencing contractile activity of smooth muscle …….. 160
12.7 Length–tension relationship…………………………………………………… 161
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 162
Chapter 13 Cardiac physiology………………………………………………………… 163
Study objectives…………………………………………………………………………….. 163
13.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 164
13.2 Functional anatomy of the heart……………………………………………. 164
13.3 Electrical activity of the heart………………………………………………… 169
13.4 Electrocardiogram………………………………………………………………….. 174
13.5 Cardiac cycle………………………………………………………………………….. 177
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
Chapter 14 Cardiac output……………………………………………………………….. 181
Study objectives…………………………………………………………………………….. 181
14.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 181
14.2 Control of heart rate………………………………………………………………. 183
14.3 Control of stroke volume ………………………………………………………. 185
14.4 Effect of exercise on cardiac output ………………………………………. 190
Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………….191
Chapter 15 The circulatory system…………………………………………………… 193
Study objectives …………………………………………………………………………….193
15.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 194
15.2 Blood vessels …………………………………………………………………………. 195
15.3 Blood pressure throughout systemic circulation……………………. 197
15.4 Blood flow through a vessel ………………………………………………….. 199
15.5 Regulation of arterial pressure ……………………………………………… 201
15.6 Autonomic nervous system …………………………………………………… 202
15.7 Vasoactive substances ……………………………………………………………. 208
15.8 Venous return ………………………………………………………………………….213
15.9 Effects of gravity on the circulatory system ………………………….. 216
15.10 Regulation of blood flow through tissues……………………………. 217
15.11 Effects of acute exercise on the circulatory system………………. 218

15.12 Capillary exchange ………………………………………………………………. 219
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
Chapter 16 Blood and hemostasis……………………………………………………. 227
Study objectives…………………………………………………………………………….. 227
16.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 227
16.2 Plasma……………………………………………………………………………………. 228
16.3 Erythrocytes…………………………………………………………………………… 228
16.4 Blood types ……………………………………………………………………………. 229
16.5 Leukocytes …………………………………………………………………………….. 230
16.6 Platelets …………………………………………………………………………………. 232
16.7 Hemostasis…………………………………………………………………………….. 233
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 238
Chapter 17 The respiratory system ………………………………………………….. 239
Study objectives …………………………………………………………………………… 239
17.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 240
17.2 Blood–gas interface ……………………………………………………………….. 240
17.3 Airways …………………………………………………………………………………. 241
17.4 The pleura……………………………………………………………………………… 242
17.5 Mechanics of breathing………………………………………………………….. 243
17.6 Elastic behavior of lungs ……………………………………………………….. 246
17.7 Interdependence …………………………………………………………………… 250
17.8 Airway resistance…………………………………………………………………… 251
17.9 Ventilation ……………………………………………………………………………… 254
17.10 Diffusion………………………………………………………………………………. 258
17.11 Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide ………………….. 260
17.12 Ventilation–perfusion matching …………………………………………… 261
17.13 Gas transport in blood ………………………………………………………… 264
17.14 Regulation of ventilation …………………………………………………….. 269
17.15 Ventilatory response to exercise…………………………………………… 275
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 276
Chapter 18 The digestive system …………………………………………………….. 279
Study objectives …………………………………………………………………………… 279
18.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 279
18.2 Digestive tract wall………………………………………………………………… 281
18.3 Regulation of gastrointestinal function………………………………….. 282
18.4 Mouth ……………………………………………………………………………………. 285
18.5 Pharynx …………………………………………………………………………………. 287
18.6 Esophagus……………………………………………………………………………… 288
18.7 Stomach …………………………………………………………………………………. 288
18.8 Liver ………………………………………………………………………………………. 295
18.9 Gallbladder …………………………………………………………………………….297
18.10 Pancreas……………………………………………………………………………….. 297
18.11 Transport of bile and pancreatic juice to small intestine ……… 298

18.12 Small intestine ……………………………………………………………………… 298
18.13 Large intestine……………………………………………………………………… 303
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 305
Chapter 19 The renal system……………………………………………………………. 307
Study objectives…………………………………………………………………………….. 307
19.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 308
19.2 Functional anatomy of kidneys……………………………………………… 309
19.3 Basic renal processes ……………………………………………………………… 312
19.4 Glomerular filtration ……………………………………………………………… 313
19.5 Tubular reabsorption……………………………………………………………….316
19.6 Vasa recta ………………………………………………………………………………. 325
19.7 Tubular secretion …………………………………………………………………… 326
19.8 Plasma clearance……………………………………………………………………. 327
19.9 Renal blood flow……………………………………………………………………..329
19.10 Control of sodium excretion: regulation of
plasma volume ……………………………………………………………………………… 336
19.11 Control of water excretion: regulation of
plasma osmolarity…………………………………………………………………………. 338
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 341
Index ………………………………………………………………………………………………………343

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Medifit  Courses Demo Certificate 

48 hours delivery

| International acceptance | Medical based | Job oriented | Lifetime validity | Most economical |

 

555 INR Demo Certificate – 2 months duration

Demo Certificate – 6 months duration

48 hours delivery after fees payment

48 hours delivery after fees payment

 

Medifit 48 hours Delivery

  Get your Certificates delivered by online mode in 48 hours after Fees payment. We try to deliver certificates in 24 hours, but the committed delivery hours are 48. Its,

Pay Today &
get Tomorrow

procedure, only by Medifit.

LIFETIME VALIDITY

Medifit issues Lifetime validity certificates for all Online Courses provided. No need to renew the certificates every 2 or 3 years. All Courses Certificates of Medifit are having Lifetime Validity. No need to renew these certificates every 2 or 3 years.

 

What makes the certificates of Medifit to get it recognized Internationally?

Vast number of students applying for Job in international market of Fitness through Medifits Online Courses Certificates. And most importantly, the Medical standards maintained, helps to acquire jobs internationally. This gives very strong International acceptance to Certificates of Medifit Courses.

 

ABOUT MEDIFIT ACADEMY CERTIFICATION COURSE:

Medifit Education Online Academy is an innovative, digital and engaging education platform that delivers fast track accredited courses and skills development courses instantly online, with no time limits, enabling individuals to study anywhere and anytime. We are proud to offer international standard courses that have helped our students build their careers across the globe.

HOW DO MEDIFIT ONLINE CERTIFICATE COURSES HELP?

Short term Professional Courses International Standards courses Opens Global opportunities Career defining Courses Skill Development Programmes Knowledge in short span Learn at your own pace Certification of Completion Immediate Earning Opportunities Positive Social Impact Optimistic Psychological Benefits Improved Standard of Living Study from anywhere & anytime Very Economical Fees

Leave a Reply