60. Physiology: Kinanthropometry And Exercise

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60. Physiology: Kinanthropometry And Exercise

60. Physiology: Kinanthropometry And Exercise

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 60

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Syllabus

List of contributors xii
Preface xiii
Introduction xv
PART ONE: NEUROMUSCULAR ASPECTS OF MOVEMENT 1

1 Skeletal muscle function
Vasilios Baltzopoulos and Nigel P.Gleeson

1.1 Aims 2
1.2 Introduction 2
1.3 Physiological aspects of muscle and joint function 3
1.4 Mechanical aspects of muscle and joint function 6
1.5 Isokinetic dynamometry applications 12
1.6 Practical 1: Assessment of muscle function during isokinetic
knee extension and flexion 24
1.7 Practical 2: Assessment of isometric force-joint position
relationship 29
1.8 Practical 3: Assessment of knee joint proprioception
performance: reproduction of passive joint positioning 30
1.9 Practical 4: Assessment of knee joint proprioception
performance: reproduction of net joint torque 33
References 35
2 Assessment of neuromuscular performance using
electromyography
Nigel P.Gleeson 41

2.1 Aims 41
2.2 Introduction 41

2.3 Factors influencing the electromyographic signal 43
2.4 Electrodes 45
2.5 Overview of hardware 48
2.6 Recording of data 49
2.7 Selected applications utilizing electromyographic
techniques 51
2.8 Measurement utility: principles of measurement and
evaluation in indices of neuromuscular performance
involving EMG 56

2.9 Practical 1: Assessment of electromechanical delay of the
knee flexors associated with static maximal voluntary
muscle actions 62

2.10 Practical 2: Assessment of electromyographic signal
amplitude and force of the knee flexors associated with
static voluntary muscle actions 67

References 72
PART TWO: OXYGEN TRANSPORT SYSTEM AND EXERCISE 75

3 Lung function
Roger G.Eston 76
3.1 Aims 76
3.2 Introduction 76
3.3 Evaluation of pulmonary ventilation during exercise 78
3.4 Post-exercise changes in lung function 82
3.5 Assessment of resting lung function 82
3.6 Pulmonary diffusing capacity 93
3.7 Sources of variation in lung function testing 94
3.8 Lung function in special populations 97
3.9 Prediction of lung function 98
3.10 Definition of obstructive and restrictive ventilatory defects 99
3.11 Practical exercises 100
3.12 Practical 1: Assessment of resting lung volumes 101
3.13 Practical 2: Assessment of lung volumes during exercise 104


3.14 Practical 3: Measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity 106

3.15 Practical 4: Measurement of oxygen uptake by closed-
circuit spirometry 109
References 110
4 Haematology
Ron Maughan, John Leiper and Mike Greaves 115
4.1 Aims 115
4.2 Introduction 115
4.3 Blood sampling and handling 117
4.4 Blood treatment after collection 122
4.5 Measurement of circulating haemoglobin concentration 124
4.6 Measurement of red cell parameters 129
4.7 Anaemia and measurement of iron status 131
4.8 Altitude training, blood doping and erythropoietin 132
4.9 Blood and plasma volume changes 133
References 136
5 Cardiovascular function
Nigel T.Cable 137
5.1 Aims 137
5.2 Introduction 137
5.3 Cardiovascular adjustments during exercise 138
5.4 Control of blood flow at rest and during exercise 143
5.5 Control of skin blood flow during exercise 145
5.6 Measurement of blood pressure 147
5.7 Measurement of peripheral blood flow 149
5.8 Practical exercises 152
5.9 Practical 1: Skin blood flow response to reactive
hyperaemia and exercise 152
5.10 Practical 2: Acute effects of exercise on cardiovascular
function 154
5.11 Practical 3: Exercise pressor response 156

References 157

PART
THREE:

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY 160
6 Basal metabolic rate
Carlton B.Cooke 161
6.1 Aims 161
6.2 Basal metabolic rate (BMR) 161
6.3 Measurement of energy expenditure 164
6.4 Practical 1: Estimation of body surface area and resting
metabolic rate 164

6.5 Practical 2: Estimation of resting metabolic rate from fat-
free mass 165
6.6 Practical 3: Measurement of oxygen uptake using the
Douglas bag technique 165
6.7 Practical 4: The respiratory quotient 176
6.8 Practical 5: Estimation of RMR using the Douglas bag
technique 179
6.9 Practical 6: Energy balance 180
6.10 Summary 187
References 187
7 Maximal oxygen uptake, economy and efficiency
Carlton B.Cooke 189
7.1 Aims 189
7.2 Introduction 189
7.3 Direct determination of maximal oxygen uptake 190
7.4 Prediction of maximal oxygen uptake 197
7.5 Economy 199
7.6 Efficiency 205
7.7 Load carriage 208
7.8 Practical 1: Direct determination of O2
using a
discontinuous cycle ergometer protocol 213

7.9 Practical 2: Measurement of running economy 216
7.10 Practical 3: Measurement of loaded running efficiency
(LRE) 218
7.11 Practical 4: Measurement of the efficiency of cycling and
stepping 221
7.12 Practical 5: The effects of load carriage on the economy of
walking 223
References 224
8 Thermoregulation
Thomas Reilly and Nigel T.Cable 229
8.1 Aims 229
8.2 Introduction 229
8.3 Processes of heat loss/heat gain 229
8.4 Control of body temperature 231
8.5 Thermoregulation and other control systems 234
8.6 Measurement of body temperature 236
8.7 Thermoregulatory responses to exercise 238
8.8 Environmental factors 238
8.9 Anthropometry and heat exchange 243
8.10 Practical exercises 245
8.11 Practical 1: Muscular efficiency 245
8.12 Practical 2: Thermoregulatory responses to exercise 246
8.13 Practical 3: Estimation of partitional heat exchange 248
References 249

PART
FOUR:

ASSESSMENT AND REGULATION OF ENERGY
EXPENDITURE AND EXERCISE INTENSITY 251
9 Control of exercise intensity using heart rate, perceived
exertion and other non-invasive procedures
Roger G.Eston and John G.Williams 252

9.1 Aims 252
9.2 Introduction 252
9.3 Non-invasive methods of determining exercise intensity 252
9.4 Physiological information 253
9.5 Effort perception in children 264
9.6 Practical 1: Use of ratings of perceived exertion to
determine and control the intensity of exercise 266
9.7 Brief analysis of the effort estimation and production test
data shown in Tables 9.7, 9.8 and 9.9 269
9.8 Practical 2: Relationship between power output, perceived
exertion (CR10), heart rate and blood lactate 271
9.9 Practical 3: The Borg cycling strength test with constant
load 273
9.10 Summary 274
References 275
10 Limitations to submaximal exercise performance
Andrew M.Jones and Jonathan H.Doust 280
10.1 Aims 280
10.2 Introduction 280
10.3 Exercise domains 281
10.4 From moderate to heavy exercise: the lactate/ventilatory
threshold 283
10.5 From heavy to severe exercise: the maximal lactate steady
state 290
10.6 From severe to supramaximal exercise: the V- O2 max 300
10.7 Conclusion 301
10.8 Practical exercises 303
10.9 Practical 1: Tlac (lactate threshold) and OBLA (onset of
blood lactate accumulation) 306
10.10 Practical 2: Ventilatory threshold 307
10.11 Practical 3: Critical power 308
10.12 Practical 4: Lactate minimum speed 309
10.13 Practical 5: Heart rate deflection point (Conconi test) 310
Acknowledgement 311

References 311
11 Assessment of maximal-intensity exercise
Edward M.Winter and Don P.MacLaren 319
11.1 Aims 319
11.2 Introduction 319
11.3 Terminology 320
11.4 Historical background 321
11.5 Screening 322
11.6 Procedures for assessing maximal-intensity exercise 322
11.7 Assessment of metabolism 328
11.8 Summary and conclusion 333
11.9 Practical 1: Wingate test 334
11.10 Practical 2: Optimization procedures 338
11.11 Practical 3: Correction procedures 341
11.12 Practical 4: Assessment of maximal accumulated oxygen
deficit (MAOD) 342
References 344
Appendix: Relationships between units of energy, work,
power and speed 350
Index 352

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