59. Medical Physiology

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59. Medical Physiology

59. Medical Physiology

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 59

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Syllabus

Chapter 1 Introduction and General Physiology

1—16 Introduction to Physiology
1–6

Homeostasis—Definition, Negative and Positive
feedback mechanisms

Cell Physiology—Structure and functions of cellular
organelles
6–10

Junctional complexes
Cellular receptors, intercellular and intracellular
communication

Transport across cell membrane—Active and Passive
transport
11–16

Vesicular transport process
Resting membrane potential, Action potential—Phases,
Ionic basis, Properties
Osmolarity, Osmolality, Nernst equation, GibbsDonnan
membrane equilibrium
Dehydration, Overhydration, Apoptosis

16
Chapter 2 Blood and Body Fluids
17—70

Introduction—Properties, composition and functions of
blood

19–22
Plasma Proteins—Types, plasma level, functions
22–23

Red Blood Cells: Morphology, normal count,
physiological variation, and functions
23–27
Erythropoiesis: Definition, sites, hemopoietic stem cells,
stages of erythropoiesis
Factors influencing erythropoiesis
Regulation of erythropoiesis—erythropoietin and other
hemopoietic factors
Hemoglobin: Normal level, Physiological variations
27–30

Structure, Types, Compounds of hemoglobin, Fate of Hb
White Blood Cells: Classification of WBC, normal

White Blood Cells: Classification of WBC, normal
values, morphology, functions, variations
30–36

Leukopoiesis, Leukaemia
Platelet: Platelet structure, normal value, production,
functions

36–42

Purpura and Bleeding Time
Hemostasis: Major steps—Primary and Secondary,
Coagulation factors
Extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms of coagulation
Physiological mechanisms preventing intravascular
coagulation—Endogenous anticoagulant systems
43–47

Endogenous fibrinolytic systems, Intravascular blood
coagulation, Disseminated Intravascular
coagulation
Anticoagulants—Types, mechanism of action and uses
Bleeding and Clotting disorders—von Willebrand
disease, Hemophilia, Vitamin K deficiency

Clotting time, Bleeding time, Prothrombin time
Blood Group: Physiological basis for blood groups
47–53

The ABO system
The Rh system—Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (HDN)
Other minor blood group systems

Blood transfusion: Indications, collection, precautions to
be taken – cross matching, screening
for infections, Consequences of mismatched transfusion,
Hazards of blood transfusion, Blood
bank
Significance of blood grouping, Coomb’s test
Anemia: Definition, etiological and morphological
classification

53–65

Effects of anemia on physiological systems, Signs and

Effects of anemia on physiological systems, Signs and
symptoms
Common types of anemia—Iron deficiency anemia,
pernicious anemia, sickle cell anemia,
and thalassemia—their causes and salient features
Polycythemia—Primary and secondary, physiological
effects
ESR, PCV, Blood Indices, Osmotic fragility
Blood volume: Normal value, physiological variation,
principles of measurement, regulation
Body Fluids and Compartments
Distribution of Total Body Water (TBW)
Principles of measurement of body fluids
Reticulo endothelial system
65–70

Odema
Immunity: Definition and types of immunity
Mechanisms (i) Cell mediated immunity (ii) Humoral
immunity
Physiological basis of immunization
Autoimmune disease, AIDS, Graft rejection
Chapter 3 Cardio Vascular System

71—119

Physiological anatomy of heart
73–77

Greater and lesser circulation
Structure and properties of cardiac muscle
Functional tissues of heart—Origin and spread of cardiac
impulses
77–80

Heart block
Cardiac cycle—Definition, mechanical events during
different phases of systole and diastole
80–83

Pressure volume changes inside heart chambers and aorta
Innervation of heart

83–84
Heart Rate—Normal value, physiological variation,
Regulation of heart rate
84–87

84–87

Cardiac output—Definition, normal values, Physiological
variation, factors affecting, cardiac index,
87–89
cardiac reserve
Regulation of cardiac output
Principles of measurement of cardiac output
Electrocardiogram—Principles of electrocardiography,
Normal ECG

89–91

Characteristics of waves, Einthoven’s triangle and law
Significance of ECG
Heart sounds—Causes, characteristics, significance,
phonocardiogram, Murmurs
91–93

Blood Pressure—Arterial blood pressure—Definition,
normal values, physiological variations,
93–103

factors affecting
Regulation of BP, Measurement of BP

Regulation of BP, Measurement of BP
Hypertension and Hypotension
Arterial pulse, venous pulse, triple response, circulation
time, apex beat, Central venous pressure
103–107
Contents xi

Haemodynamics—Peripheral resistance, blood viscosity,
laminar blood flow, turbulent blood flow,
107–109

velocity of blood flow
Poiseuille’s Law
Microcirculation—Capillary circulation, Starling forces
Local and humoral control of blood flow—
Autoregulation of blood flow and hyperemia
Regional circulation—Coronary circulation and coronary
artery disease, pulmonary, splanchnic,
109–111

cutaneous, cerebral and foetal circulation
Circulatory shock and Syncope
112–117

112–117

Cardiac failure, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Cardio vascular changes during exercise and effect of
gravity on CVS, Echocardiography, Cardiac
arrythmia
Lymphatic system: Lymph-, formation, composition,
circulation and functions, lymphatic organs,
117–119

Disorders of lymphatic obstruction
Chapter 4 Respiratory System
121—154

Functional anatomy, Functions of respiratory system—
Respiratory and non respiratory functions
123–125

Physiological anatomy
Respiratory membrane
Mechanism of breathing—Respiratory muscles and their
action

125–128

125–128

Intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressure changes during
respiratory cycle, Forces acting on
respiratory membrane
Pressure—Volume relationships
128–130

Compliance—chest and lungs, values, total compliance
Surfactant, Hyaline membrane disease
Spirometry—Lung volumes and lung capacities, Normal
values, significance
130–137

Vital capacity and timed vital capacity—factors affecting
and significance of vital capacity
Minute repiratory volume Maximum Voluntary
Ventilation Breathing Reserve
Respiratory dead space-Anatomical and physiological—
Defintion and normal value Principle of

measurement
Pulmonory ventilation and alveolar ventiliation
Ventilation purfusion ratio

Ventilation purfusion ratio
Airway resistance
Pulmonary gas exchange—Composition of inspired air,
expired air, Partial pressures
Factors affecting gas exchange across the respiratory
membrane

Transportation of oxygen in the blood
137–140

Oxygen-Hb dissociation curve
Transportation of carbondioxide in the blood
Chloride shift, Haldane effect
Respiratory Quotient
Regulation of Respiration – Neural Regulation –
Respiratory centres
141–142

Hering-Bruer’s Inflation and deflation reflexes
Chemical regulation of respiration Peripheral and central
chemoreceptors
142–145

Effect of H+

conc, PCO2 and PO2 on respiration

Hypoxia—Types and effects
145–151

Cyanosis, Asphyxia, Dyspnoea, Periodic breathing,
Acclimitization to high altitude, mountain sickness
Dysbarism Asthma, Emphysema, Apnoea, Periodic
Breathing
xii

Contents

Artificial respiration—Manual methods
151–154

Holger-Neilson method and mouth to mouth breathing
Respiratory changes during exercise
Chapter 5 Excretory System
155—182

Kidney: Functional anatomy Functions of kidney, types
of nephrons
157–162

Renal blood flow and its peculiarities
Juxta Glomerular Apparatus
Mechanism of urine formation, Glomerular filtration—
GFR

162–165

Mechanism, factors affecting and measurement
Tubular reabsorption—Sodium, water and glucose—Tmg
and renal threshold
Tubular secretion of H+

Mechanism of concentration of urine – Counter current
mechanism

165–166

Role of urea, action of ADH
Micturition—Innervation of bladder, Cystometrogram
166–170

Micturition reflex, abnormalities of micturition
Properties and composition of normal urine
170–171

Abnormal constituents of urine

Abnormal constituents of urine

Non excretory functions of Kidneys
171–178

Acid base balance
Regulation of plasma osmalality, ECF volume
Endocrine functions Hormones acting on kidneys
Renal Function Tests—Clearance tests

178–179

Diuresis
Applied aspects—Renal failure, Artificial kidney,
Nephrotic syndrome
179–182

Skin & its Appendages—Structure and function
Chapter 6 Digestive System
183—214 Introduction, functional anatomy of gastro
intestinal tract and its innervations

185–187

Secretory functions of GIT

Saliva-properties, composition
188–190

Functions and regulation of secretion and applied aspects
Stomach-functional anatomy
190–194

Gastric juice—properties, composition, functions,
mechanisms and regulation of secretion,
Experimental evidences of gastric secretion (Sham
feeding and Pavlov’s pouch)
Applied aspects—Gastritis, Peptic ulcer, ZollingerEllison
Syndrome
Exocrine Pancreas—Pancreatic juice—properties,
composition, functions and regulation of secretion
195–196

Applied aspects—Pancreatitis
Liver—Functions of liver

196–199

Bile—composition, functions and regulation of secretion

Bile—composition, functions and regulation of secretion
Functions of Gall bladder
Enterohepatic circulation—Gall stones
Contents xiii

Small intestine—Functional anatomy—Succus entericus
—properties, composition, functions and
199–201

regulation of secretion
Functions of large intestine
Applied aspects
Motor functions of GIT
Mastication, Deglutition—stages—Achalasia
201–207

Gastric emptying, Movements of stomach, Vomiting
Small intestine—movements
Large intestine—functions and movements, Defecation
Applied aspects—Diarrhea, Constipation
Jaundice, appendicitis, Steatorrhea, Irritable bowel
syndrome (IBS) Inflammatory bowel disease
207–210

(IBD), Hirschpurng’s disease, Gastro Esophageal Reflux
Disorder (GERD)
Digestion and absorption of Carbohydrates, Proteins and
Lipids
210–214

Applied aspects—Malabsoption syndrome
Dietary fibres
Chapter 7 Endocrine System
215—271

Introduction—Types of chemical messengers General
properties of hormones
217–221

Classification of hormones and mechanism of action
Major endocrine glands
Anterior Pituitary—Hypothalamic control of pituitary
secretion

221–227

Physiological functions of growth hormone (GH), role of

Physiological functions of growth hormone (GH), role of
somatomedians on growth, regulation of
GH secretion
Abnormalities of GH secretion—Dwarfism, gigantism,
acromegaly
Functions and regulation of secretion of prolactin, TSH,
ACTH, Gonadotropins
Posterior Pituitary
227–230

Antidiuretic hormone—Function and regulation of
secretion
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH
Oxytocin—Functions and regulation of secretion
Thyroid gland—Synthesis, secretion, functions and
regulation of secretion of thyroid hormones
230–237

Disorders of thyroid—Goitre, Cretinism, Myxoedema,
Grave’s disease,
Thyroid function tests, Antithyroid substances
Adrenal Cortex
Synthesis and secretion of adrenocortical hormones,

Functions of the mineralocorticoids-aldosterone

237–245

Regulation of secretion of aldosterone Conn’s syndrome
Functions and regulation of secretion of glucocorticoids
—cortisol, disorders-Addison’s disease,
Cushing’s syndrome
Adrenal androgens
Adrenogential syndrome
Adrenal medulla—Biosyntheis of catecholamines
Functions of adrenal medullary hormones Alarm
reaction, Pheochromocytoma
Endocrine Pancreas—Physiological functions of insulin
246–255

Mechanism of action—Insulin receptors
Regulation of insulin secretion
Diabetes mellitus—types and pathophysiology
Glucagon—Functions and regulation of secretion
Somatostatin—Pancreatic polypeptide
Hormonal regulation of blood glucose Hypoglycemia
Parathyroid Gland—functions and regulation of secretion
of PTH

255–261

Actions of PTH on regulation of plasma calcium and
phosphate concentration, Tetany
Calcitonin—Functions and regulation of secretion
Calcium metabolism—Hormonal regulation of plasma
calcium level

Other endocrine glands—Pineal gland, thymus
261–264

Local hormones—Histamine, Serotonin, Prostaglandins,
Acetyl choline, Bradykinin
GIT hormones

Growth, development and ageing
265–271
Chapter 8 Nervous System
273—357 Organization and overview of functions of
Nervous system
275–277

Neuron—Structure, classification and properties
277–278

277–278

Resting membrane potential, Action potential, strength-
duration curve

Nervefibre—Classification, conduction of impulses in
myelinated & nonmyelinated nerve fibers
279–280

Velocity of conduction of nerve impulse
Degeneration and regeneration of nervefibre,
Neurotrophins
281–283

Neuroglia—Types and functions
Sensory Receptors—Definition, Classification and
Properties
283–285

Synapse—Structure, transmission, properties, synaptic
inhibition Neurotransmitters – Definition,
285–291

types and examples
Organization of spinal cord
291–293

291–293

Reflex Action, Reflex arc, Classification of reflexes
293–299

Properties of reflexes
Ascending Tracts—Sensory pathways—Dorsal column,
lateral column

299–304

(Name of important tracts, explanation of lateral
spinothalamic tract)
Anterior column
Pathway for fine touch, crude touch, pressure pain, and
temperature
Physiology of Pain—Definition of pain, Pain receptors,
Classification of pain
304–309

Pain pathways—fast and slow
Modulation of pain at spinal cord level
Central pain analgesic mechanisms
Referred pain, Phantom pain, Projected pain, analgesia
Principles of pain management

Principles of pain management
Descending tracts—Pyramidal and extra pyramidal
pathways Origin, course, termination and functions
309–316

Upper motor neuron lesion and lower motor neuron
lesion
Lesions of spinal cord—Complete and Hemisection of
spinal cord
Gross structure and functions of—Medula and Pons

316–317

Cerebellum—Structure, connections and functions

317–322

Cerebellar disorders
Posture and equilibrium, muscle spindle and postural
reflexes
Decerebrate rigidity
Contents xv
Hypothalamus—Structure, connections and functions
322–329

Thalamus—Structure, connections and functions
329–331

Thalamic syndrome
Basal ganglia—Connections and functions
331–334

Disorders—Parkinsonism, Wilson’s disease, Chorea
Reticular formation

334–335 Cerebral cortex, cytoarchitecture,lobes and
functions Dominant hemisphere, Disorders-Cerebral
335–340

palcy, Plegia, Epilepsy
Limbic system, organization, connections and functions
Disorders

340–342
Electroencephalogram: EEG pattern, Clinical uses of
EEG

342–343

Cerebrospinal fluid, Formation, circulation, composition

Cerebrospinal fluid, Formation, circulation, composition
and functions, Hydrocephalus-lumbar
343–346
puncture Blood Brain Barrier
Physiology of Sleep
346–350

Speech and speech disorders
Learning & Memory—Definition, types of memory
350–352

Biochemical and physiological basis of memory
Amnesia, Alzheimer’s disease
Autonomic Nervous System , Organization and functions
352–355

Cranial nerves

356–357
Chapter 9 Special Senses
359—384

Vision—Functional anatomy Structure of retina Rods and
cones

361–363
Mechanism of formation of image—Basic optics
363

Mechanism of processing of image—Phototransduction
363–365
Refractive errors with correction
Aqueous humour, Vitreous humour, Intraoccular pressure
366

Pupillary reflexes with pathways—Light reflexes and
Accommodation reflex Argyl Robertsons
366–372

Pupil Strabismus or squint Movements of eye
Physiology of color vision and color blindness
Visual-Adaptation—light and dark, Cateract, Critical
Fusion Frequency
Visual pathway with lesions at various levels, Visual
acuity and Field of vision

372–375

Audition—Structure and function of external and middle
ear

375–376

Structure of organ of Corti, Cochlear fluids, Cochlear
potential
Mechanism of hearing, Activation of hair cell, Auditory
pathway, Electrical potentials from cochlea,
376–377

Theories of hearing
Frequency and intensity discrimination
Auditory pathway
377–379

Applied aspect: Hearing tests, Deafness, Audiometry
Vestibular apparatus: functions
379–381

Olfaction—Olfactory receptors, mechanism of
stimulation, Olfactory pathway

stimulation, Olfactory pathway
381–384

Gustation—Modalities of taste, Taste buds
Mechanism of stimulation and taste pathway
Chapter 10 Muscle Physiology and Exercise
Physiology
385—408

Muscle—Types
387–391

Comparison between skeletal, cardiac and smooth
muscles, Motor unit
Physiological anatomy of skeletal muscle, sarcomere,
contractile muscle proteins, Sarcoplasmic
reticulum
Properties of skeletal muscle
Neuromuscular junction—Structure, neuromuscular
transmission, Neuromuscular blockers,
391–398

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis
Excitation contraction coupling, molecular basis of
muscle contraction
Experiments on properties of muscles
Chemical changes during contraction
Types of contraction—isometric and isotonic, Fast and
slow muscle
Muscle dystrophy, rigor mortis
Smooth muscle—structure, types and functions,
Mechanism of smooth muscle contraction

398–399
Exercise Physiology—Isotonic and isometric exercise,
gradation of exercise
400–401
Changes during exercise—Cardiovascular, respiratory,
metabolic, endocrine and nervous

401–406
Effect of training on muscular performance, health
benefits of exercise

406–408

Chapter 11 Reproductive System

409—440 Introduction

411–412

Puberty—Pubertal changes in male and female
Male reproductive system—Functional anatomy
412–417

Spermatogenesis—steps and factors influencing
Abnormal spermatogenesis, semen, Sertoli cells
Functions and regulation of secretion of testosterone
Cryptorchidism, Hypogonadism
Infertility
Female reproductive system—Functional anatomy
417–425

Oogenesis-steps and factors influencing
Menstrual cycle—Ovarian and uterine changes
Tests for ovulation
Hormonal control of menstrual cycle
Female sex hormones, oestrogen, progesterone, relaxin
Physiology of pregnancy—Fertilization, implantation
425–432

425–432

Placenta, hormones of placenta and functions
Pregnancy diagnostic tests
Maternal changes during pregnancy
Parturition: initiation and onset of labor
Lactation—Role of estrogen and progesterone in
development of breast
Role of prolactin and oxytocin in milk ejection process
Menopause
Family planning, Physiology of contraception—
Physiological basis of different methods of
432–435
contraception in males and females
Sex determination, Sex differentiation

435–439
Chromosomal aberrations of sexual development
Question Bank 441–454
Bibliography 455
Index 457

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