53. Practical Physiology

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53. Practical Physiology

53. Practical Physiology



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1-1 The Compound Microscope 2
1-2 The Study of Common Objects 13
1-3 Collection of Blood Samples 14
1-4 Hemocytometry (Cell Counting)
The Diluting Pipettes 23
1-5 Hemocytometry (Cell Counting)
The Counting Chamber 28
1-6 Examination of Fresh Blood:
A. Drop Preparation
B. Preparing a Peripheral Blood Film 31
1-7 Estimation of Hemoglobin 34
1-8 The Red Cell Count 45
1-9 Determination of Hematocrit (Hct)
(Packed Cell Volume; PCV) 53
1-10 Normal Blood Standards (Absolute Corpuscular Values and Indices) 57
1-11 The Total Leukocyte Count (TLC)
White Cell Count (WCC) 60
1-12 Staining a Peripheral Blood Film
The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) 69
1-13 The Cooke-Arneth Count (Arneth Count) 85
1-14 Absolute Eosinophil Count 87
1-15 Study of Morphology of Red Blood Cells 89
1-16 The Reticulocyte Count 90
1-17 Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) 93
1-18 Blood Grouping (Syn: Blood Typing) 98

xii A Textbook of Practical Physiology
1-19 Tests for Hemostasis
(Bleeding time; Coagulation time; Platelet count; and other tests) 111
1-20 Osmotic Fragility of Red Blood Cells
(Syn: Osmotic Resistance of Red Blood Corpuscles) 128
1-21 Specific Gravity of Blood and Plasma
(Copper Sulphate Falling Drop Method of Philips and van Slyke) 132
1-22 Determination of Viscosity of Blood 136
Unit I: Respiratory System

2-1 Stethography: Recording of Normal and Modified Movements of Respiration 139
2-2 Determination of Breath Holding Time (BHT) 145
2-3 Spirometry (Determination of Vital Capacity, Peak Expiratory
Flow Rate, and Lung Volumes and Capacities) 146
2-4 Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) 157
2-5 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
(Cardiopulmonary-Cerebral Resuscitation (CPCR)) 160

Unit II: Cardiovascular System

2-6 Recording of Systemic Arterial Blood Pressure 167
2-7 Effect of Posture, Gravity and Muscular Exercise on
Blood Pressure and Heart Rate 182
2-8 Cardiac Efficiency Tests (Exercise Tolerance Tests) 186
2-9 Demonstration of Carotid Sinus Reflex 187
2-10 Demonstration of Venous Blood Flow 188
2-11 Recording of Venous Pressure 189
2-12 Demonstration of Triple Response 190
2-13 Electrocardiography (ECG) 191
2-14 Experiments on Student Physiography 197

Unit III: Special Sensations

2-15 Perimetry (Charting the Field of Vision) 200

Contents xiii
2-16 Mechanical Stimulation of the Eye 205
2-17 Physiological Blind Spot 205
2-18 Near Point and Near Response 206
2-19 Sanson Images 206
2-20 Demonstration of Stereoscopic Vision 207
2-21 Dominance of the Eye 207
2-22 Subjective Visual Sensations 208
2-23 Visual Acuity 208
2-24 Color Vision 211
2-25 Tuning-Fork Tests of Hearing 213
2-26 Localization of Sounds 218
2-27 Masking of Sounds 218
2-28 Sensation of Taste 219
2-29 Sensation of Smell 220

Unit IV: Nervous System, Nerve and Muscle

2-30 Electroencephalography (EEG) 222
2-31 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests, Nerve Conduction Studies,
Motor Nerve Conduction in Median Nerve 226
2-32 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests
Sensory Nerve Conduction in Ulnar Nerve 230
2-33 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests Electromyography (EMG) 231
2-34 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests Evoked Potentials Brainstem Auditory,
Visual, Somatosensory and Motor Evoked Potentials 234
2-35 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests
The Hoffmann’s Reflex (H-Reflex ) 236
2-36 Study of Human Fatigue Mosso’s Ergograph and Hand-Grip Dynamometer 237
2-37 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Tests
(Autonomic Function Tests; AFTs) 240

Unit V: Reproductive System

2-38 Semen Analysis 245

xiv A Textbook of Practical Physiology
2-39 Pregnancy Diagnostic Tests 248
2-40 Birth Control Methods 250
3-1 Outline for History Taking and General Physical Examination 255
3-2 Clinical Examination of the Respiratory System 258
3-3 Clinical Examination of the Cardiovascular System 263
3-4 Clinical Examination of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) and Abdomen 272
3-5 Clinical Examination of the Nervous System 276
4-1 Study of Apparatus 310
4-2 Dissection of Gastrocnemius Muscle-Sciatic Nerve Preparation 316
4-3 Simple Muscle Twitch (Effect of a Single Stimulus) 317
4-4 Effect of Changing the Strength of Stimulus 322
4-5 Effect of Temperature on Muscle Contraction 324
4-6 Velocity of Nerve Impulse 326
4-7 Effect of Two Successive Stimuli 327
4-8 Genesis of Tetanus (Effect of Many Successive Stimuli) 329
4-9 Phenomenon of Fatigue and its Site (Effect of Continued Stimulation) 331
4-10 Effect of Load and Length on Muscle Contraction (Free- and After-Loading) 332
4-11 Exposure of Frog’s Heart and Normal Cardiogram 335
4-12 Effect of Temperature on Frog’s Heart 337
4-13 Effect of Adrenalin, Acetylcholine and Atropine on Heart 337
4-14 Effect of Stimulation of Vagosympathetic Trunk and Crescent;
Vagal Escape; Effect of Nicotine and Atropine 339
4-15 Properties of Cardiac Muscle (Stannius Ligatures) 341
4-16 Perfusion of Isolated Heart of Frog 343
4-17 Study of Reflexes in Spinal and Decerebrate Frogs 344
4-18 Experiments on Anesthetized Dog 345

5-1 Jugular Venous Pulse Tracing 349
5-2 Cardiac Cycle 351
5-3 Oxygen Dissociation Curve 353
5-4 Strength-duration Curve 356
5-5 Action Potential in a Large, Myelinated Nerve Fiber 357
5-6 Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle Fibers 360
5-7 Dye Dilution Curve 361
5-8 Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) 364
Calculations 369
Appendix 375
Index 379



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