188. Micro-Organisms & Earth Systems

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188. Micro-Organisms & Earth Systems

188. Micro-Organisms & Earth Systems

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 188

FEES: 555/- INR only

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Preface xiii
1 Meat and meat products 1
I Introduction 1
A Definitions 2
B Important properties 2
C Methods of processing and
preservation 3
D Types of meat products 4
II Initial microflora 4
A Ruminants 4
B Pigs 10
III Primary processing 15
A Ruminants 15
B Pigs 23
C Spoilage 31
D Pathogens 32
E Control 38
E Control (farm) 38
F Control (transport and
holding at abattoirs) 40
G Control (slaughter and
dressing of cattle and sheep) 41
H Control (slaughter and
dressing of pigs) 42
I Control (chilling (cattle,
sheep, and pigs)) 43
J Control (storage and
transport) 45
IV Carcass cutting and packaging 46
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 46
B Spoilage 48
C Pathogens 50
D Control (meat stored in air,
vacuum-packed or stored in
modified atmospheres) 51
V Frozen meat 52
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 52
B Spoilage 52
C Pathogens 53
D Control (frozen meats) 53
VI Raw comminuted meats 54
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 54
B Spoilage 55
C Pathogens 55
D Control (raw comminuted
meats) 58
VII Raw cured shelf-stable meats 59
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 59

B Spoilage 62
C Pathogens 62
D Control (raw, cured,
shelf-stable meats) 64
Control (Chinese sausages) 65
D Control (dry salami,
e.g., Hungarian) 66
D Control (fermented,
high acid sausages) 67
VIII Dried meats 68
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 68
B Spoilage 69
C Pathogens 69
D Control (dried meats) 69
IX Cooked perishable uncured meats 71
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 71
B Spoilage 72
C Pathogens 73
D Control (cooked perishable
uncured meats) 74
X Fully retorted shelf-stable
uncured meats 75
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 75
B Spoilage 76
C Pathogens 76
D Control ( fully retorted
shelf-stable uncured meats) 76
XI Cooked perishable cured meats 78
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 78
B Spoilage 79
C Pathogens 80
D Control (cooked, perishable
cured meats) 82
XII Shelf-stable cooked cured meats 83
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 83
B Spoilage 83
C Pathogens 83
D Control (shelf-stable cooked
cured meats) 84
XIII Snails 84
A Definition 84
B Production and processing 85
C Pathogens 85
D Control (snails) 85
XIV Froglegs 86
A Definition 86
B Production and processing 86
C Pathogens 87
D Control (froglegs) 87
References 88
2 Poultry products 107
I Introduction 107
A Definitions 108
B Important properties 108
C Method of processing 108
D Types of poultry products 108
II Initial microflora (effect of
farm practices) 110
III Primary processing (whole birds
and parts) 111
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 111
B Spoilage 123
C Pathogens 127
D Control (primary processing,
whole birds and parts) 145
IV Frozen poultry products 146
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 146
B Spoilage 146
C Pathogens 147
D Control (frozen poultry product) 147
V Perishable, cooked poultry
products 148
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 148
B Spoilage 149
C Pathogens 150
D Control (perishable,
cooked poultry products) 152

VI Fully retorted (“botulinum-
cooked”) poultry products 154

A Control (fully retorted shelf-stable
poultry products) 154
VII Dried poultry products 155
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 156
B Spoilage 156
C Pathogens 156
D Control (dried poultry products) 156
References 157
3 Fish and fish products 174
I Introduction 174
A Definitions 174
B Important properties 175
II Initial microflora 177
A Saprophytic microorganisms 177
B Pathogens and toxicants 180
III Primary processing 190
A Finfish of marine and
freshwater origin 190
Control (finfish of marine
and freshwater origin) 195
B Crustacea 197
Control (crustacea) 200
C Mollusca 202
Control (mollusca) 206
IV Aquaculture 208
A Initial microflora 208
B Spoilage 208

C Pathogens 209
D Control (aquaculture) 210
V Frozen raw seafood 211
A Freezing process 211
B Saprophytes and spoilage 212
C Pathogens 212
D Control (frozen raw seafood) 213
VI Minced fish and surimi products 214
VII Cooked crustaceae (frozen or
chilled) 215
A Cooking, picking, and packaging 215
B Saprophytes and spoilage 215
C Pathogens 217
D Control (cooked
crustaceae, frozen or chilled) 220
VIII Lightly preserved fish products 221
A Introduction 221
B Saprophytes and spoilage 222
C Pathogens 223
D Control (lightly preserved
fish products) 225
IX Semi-preserved fish products 227
A Introduction 227
B Saprophytes and spoilage 227
C Pathogens 228
D Control (semi-preserved
fish products) 228
X Fermented fish products 229
A Control (fermented fish products) 230
XI Fully dried or salted products 231
A Control (fully dried or
salted products) 232
XII Pasteurized products 232
A Introduction 232
B Saprophytes and spoilage 233
C Pathogens 233
D Control (pasteurized fish products) 234
XIII Canned seafood 235
A Processing 235
B Control (canned seafood) 235
References 236
4 Feeds and pet foods 250
I Introduction 250
II Roughages 251
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 252
B Spoilage 252
C Pathogens 253
D Control (roughages) 254
III Animal by-products 256
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 257
B Spoilage 258
C Pathogens 258
D Control (animal by-products) 261
IV Fish meal 263
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 264
B Spoilage 265
C Pathogens 265
D Control (fish meal) 265

V Compounded feeds 266
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 266
B Spoilage 267
C Pathogens 268
D Control (compounded feeds) 268
VI Pet foods 270
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 271
B Spoilage 271
C Pathogens 271
D Control (pet foods) 272
References 272
5 Vegetables and vegetable
products 277
I Introduction 277
A Definitions and important
properties 277
II Initial microflora (including field
practices and harvest) 278
A Saprophytic microorganisms 279
B Pathogens 279
C Good agricultural practices 280
III Raw and minimally processed
vegetables 281
A Effects of transportation,
processing, and storage on
microorganisms 281
B Saprophytes and spoilage 283
C Pathogens 284
D Control (raw and minimally
processed vegetables) 289
IV Cooked vegetables 294
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 294
B Saprophytes and spoilage 294
C Pathogens 294
D Control (cooked vegetables) 295
V Frozen vegetables 295
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 295
B Saprophytes and spoilage 296
C Pathogens 296
D Control (frozen vegetables) 297
VI Canned vegetables 297
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 297
B Saprophytes and spoilage 298
C Pathogens 299
D Control (canned vegetables) 299
VII Dried vegetables 301
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 301
B Saprophytes and spoilage 301
C Pathogens 302
D Control (dried vegetables) 302
VIII Fermented and acidified vegetables 303
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 303
B Saprophytes and spoilage 305
C Pathogens 305

D Control (fermented and
acidified vegetables) 306
IX Sprouts 307
A Effects of harvesting,
transportation, processing, and
storage 307
B Saprophytes and spoilage 307
C Pathogens 308
D Control (sprouts) 309
X Mushrooms 311
A Effects of harvesting,
transportation, processing, and
storage on microorganisms 311
B Saprophytes and spoilage 312
C Pathogens 312
D Control (mushrooms) 313
XI Cassava 314
A Effects of harvesting,
transportation, processing, and
storage on microorganisms 314
B Control (cassava) 315
References 315
6 Fruits and fruit products 326
I Introduction 326
A Definitions 326
B Important properties 326
C Methods of processing 326
D Types of final products 327
II Initial microflora (fresh fruits) 328
III Primary processing 328
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 328
B Spoilage 329
C Pathogens 334
D Control (fresh fruits) 336
IV Pre-cut (minimally processed)
fruit 338
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 338
B Spoilage 339
C Pathogens 339
D Control (pre-cut
(minimally processed) fruit) 340
V Frozen fruits 341
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 341
B Spoilage 341
C Pathogens 342
D Control (frozen fruits) 342
VI Canned fruits 342
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 342
B Spoilage 343
C Pathogens 343
D Control (canned fruits) 344
VII Dried fruits 345
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 345
B Spoilage 346
C Pathogens 346
D Control (dried fruits) 347
VIII Fermented and acidified fruits 348
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 348
B Spoilage 349
C Pathogens 350
D Control (fermented and
acidified fruits) 350
IX Tomato products 351
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 351
B Spoilage 351
C Pathogens 352
D Control (tomato products) 352
References 353
7 Spices, dry soups, and oriental
flavorings 360
I Spices, herbs, and dry vegetable
seasonings 360
A Definitions 360
B Important properties 360
C Methods of processing and
preservation 362
D Types of final products 362
E Initial microflora 363
F Primary processing 365
G Processing 368
H Control (spices, herbs,
and dry vegetable seasonings) 371
II Dry soup and gravy mixes 372
A Definitions 372
B Initial microflora 372
C Primary processing 373
D Control (dry soup and gravy mixes) 374
III Soy sauces 374
A Definition 374
B Important properties 374
C Methods of processing and
preservation 375
D Types of final products 377
E Initial microflora 378
F Primary processing 378
G Control 380
IV Fish and shrimp sauces and pastes 382
A Definitions 382
B Important properties 382
C Methods of processing and
preservation 382
D Types of final products 383
E Initial microflora 383
F Primary processing 384
G Control 385
References 385
8 Cereals and cereal products 392
I Introduction 392
A Definitions 392
B Important properties 393
C Methods of processing 393
D Types of final products 394

II Initial microflora 394
A Fungi 394
B Bacteria 398
III Primary processing 399
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 399
B Spoilage 401
C Pathogens and toxins 403
D Control (cereals) 408
IV Flours, starches, and meals 409
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 409
B Saprophytes and spoilage 411
C Pathogens and toxins 411
D Control (flours, starches
and meals) 412
V Dough 413
A Effect of processing on
microorganism 413
B Spoilage 414
C Pathogens and toxins 414
D Control (dough) 415
VI Breads 415
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 415
B Spoilage 417
C Pathogens and toxins 419
D Control (breads) 419
VII Pasta and noodles 421
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 421
B Spoilage 421
C Pathogens and toxins 422
D Control (pasta and noodles) 423
VIII Breakfast cereals and snack foods 423
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 423
B Spoilage 424
C Pathogens and toxins 424
D Control (breakfast cereals,
snack foods) 424
IX Pastries and filled products 425
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 425
B Spoilage 425
C Pathogens 426
D Control (pastries and
filled products) 426
References 429
9 Nuts, oilseeds, and
dried legumes 440
I Introduction 440
A Definitions 440
B Important properties 440
C Methods of processing 441
D Types of final products 442
II Initial microflora 443
A Nuts 443
B Oilseeds 443
C Legumes 443
D Coffee 443

III Primary processing 444
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 444
B Spoilage 448
C Pathogens 449
D Control (primary processing
of tree nuts, peanuts, coconut,
dried legumes, and coffee) 455
IV Tree nut, peanut, and coconut
processing 458
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 458
B Spoilage 458
C Pathogens 458
D Control (tree nut, peanut and
coconut processing) 459
V Oilseed products 460
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 460
B Spoilage 460
C Pathogens 460
D Control (oilseed products) 460
VI Legume products 460
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 460
B Spoilage 461
C Pathogens 461
D Control (legume products) 461
VII Coffee products 461
References 461
10 Cocoa, chocolate, and
confectionery 467
I Introduction 467
A Definitions 467
B Important properties 467
II Initial microflora 468
III Primary processing 468
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 468
B Methods of processing 470
IV Processed products 470
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 470
B Spoilage 471
C Pathogens 472
D Control (cocoa,
chocolate and confectionery) 474
References 476
11 Oil- and fat-based foods 480
I General introduction 480
II Mayonnaise and dressings 481
A Definitions 481
B Important properties 482
C Methods of processing and
preservation 483
D Microbial spoilage and pathogens 485
E Control (mayonnaise and
dressings) 491

III Mayonnaise-based salads 493
A Definitions 493
B Important properties 493
C Methods of processing and
preservation 493
D Microbial spoilage and pathogens 494
E Control (mayonnaise-based salads) 495
IV Margarine 496
A Definitions 496
B Important properties 497
C Methods of processing and
preservation 497
D Microbial spoilage and pathogens 500
E Control (margarine) 502
V Reduced-fat spread 504
A Definitions 504
B Important properties 505
C Methods of processing and
preservation 505
D Microbial spoilage and pathogens 506
E Control (reduced-fat spread) 507
VI Butter 508
A Definitions 508
B Important properties 509
C Methods of processing and
preservation 509
D Microbial spoilage and pathogens 510
E Control (butter) 513
VII Water-continuous spreads 515
VIII Miscellaneous products 516
References 516
12 Sugar, syrups, and honey 522
I Introduction 522
II Cane sugar 522
A Initial microflora 522
B Effects of processing on
microorganisms 523
C Spoilage 525
D Pathogens 526
E Control (cane sugar) 527
III Beet sugar 528
A Initial microflora 528
B Effects of storage and processing
on microorganisms 528
C Spoilage 530
D Pathogens 531
E Control (beet sugar) 531
F Microorganisms in refined sugar
capable of spoiling other food 532
IV Palm sugar 533
A Initial microflora 533
B Effects of processing on
microorganisms 533
C Spoilage 533
D Pathogens 533
E Control (palm sugar) 534
V Syrups 534
A Initial microflora 534
B Effect of processing on
microorganisms 535
C Spoilage 535
D Pathogens 536
E Control (syrups) 536
VI Honey 537
A Initial microflora 538
B Effect of processing on
microorganisms 538
C Spoilage 539
D Pathogens 539
E Control (honey) 539
References 540
13 Soft drinks, fruit juices,
concentrates, and fruit
preserves 544
I Introduction 544
A Foods covered 544
B Important properties 545
C Initial microflora 548
II Potential food safety hazards 548
A Mycotoxins 549
B Bacterial pathogens 549
C Viruses 550
D Parasites 551
III Spoilage 551
A Preservative resistant yeasts 551
B Filamentous fungi (molds) 554
C Bacteria 554
IV Processing 556
A Heat processing 557
B Chilled storage 559
C Preservatives 559
D Stabilization of concentrated
fruit products 562
E Stabilization of fruit preserves 563
F Combination of pasteurization
and preservatives 563
G Alternative non-thermal
methods 564
Control (soft drinks,
carbonated and non-carbonated) 565
Control (fruit juice and
related products) 565
H Tea-based beverages 568
References 568
14 Water 574
I Introduction 574
A Important properties 574
B Methods of processing and
preservation 574
C Types of final products 574
II Drinking water 574
A Definitions 574
B Initial microflora 575
C Primary processing of raw water 576
D Pathogens 580
E Spoilage 580
F Control (drinking water) 581
III Process or product water 583
A Definition 583
B Initial microflora 584

C Primary processes of processing
or product water 584
D Control (process or product water) 585
IV Bottled water 587
A Definitions 587
B Initial microflora 587
C Primary processing 587
C Effects of processing on
microorganisms 588
C Pathogens 590
D Spoilage 590
E Control (natural mineral water) 590
References 592
15 Eggs and egg products 597
I Introduction 597
A Definitions 597
B Important properties 597
C Types of products 601
II Initial microflora 602
A Transovarian transmission 602
B Contamination in the cloacae 606
C Contamination in the production
environment 607
III Shell eggs 608
A Effect of initial processing 608
B Spoilage 612
C Pathogens 614
D Control (shell eggs) 616
IV Liquid eggs 617
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 617
B Spoilage 625
C Pathogens 625
D Control (liquid eggs) 627
V Dried eggs 629
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 629
B Spoilage 631
C Pathogens 631
D Control (dried eggs) 632
VI Further processed egg products 632
References 633
16 Milk and dairy products 643
I Introduction 643
A Definitions 643
B Importance of microorganisms
and other important properties 644
C Methods of processing and
preservation 645
D Types of final products 645
II Raw milk—initial microflora 645
A Interior of the udder 646
B Udder and teat surfaces 647
C Milk handling equipment 647
D Environment 648
E Persons handling milk 648
F Antimicrobial factors naturally
present in milk 648
G Inhibitory substances and
veterinary drug residues 649

III Raw milk for direct consumption 650
A Effects of handling of raw milk
on microorganisms 650
B Spoilage 651
C Pathogens 651
D Control (raw milk for direct
consumption) 654
IV Processed fluid milk 657
A Introduction 657
B Initial processing steps 657
C Basic procedures to reduce the
initial microflora 657
D Cleaning and disinfection 659
E Effects of processing on
microorganisms 659
F Spoilage 659
G Pathogens 660
H Control (processed fluid milk) 662
I Shelf-stable milk 664
Control (shelf-stable milk) 666
V Cream 668
A Effect of processing on
microorganisms 668
B Spoilage 668
C Pathogens 668
D Control 668
VI Concentrated milks 669
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 669
B Spoilage 670
C Pathogens 670
D Control (concentrated milks) 671
VII Dried dairy products 672
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 672
B Spoilage 673
C Pathogens 673
D Control (dried dairy products) 674
VIII Ice cream and frozen dairy
desserts 676
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 677
B Spoilage 677
C Pathogens 678
D Control (ice cream and frozen
dairy desserts) 678
IX Fermented milks 680
A Effect of processing on
microorganisms 680
B Spoilage 683
C Pathogens 683
D Control (fermented milks) 684
X Cheese 685
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 686
B Spoilage 689
C Pathogens 690
D Control (fresh and ripened cheese) 693
Control (processed cheese) 696
References 698

17 Fermented beverages 716
I Introduction 716
A Definitions 716
B Important properties 716
C Methods of processing 716
D Types of final products 718
II Initial microflora 718
A Grains 718
B Grapes 718
III Primary processing 719
A Effects of processing on
microorganisms 719
B Spoilage 719
C Pathogens 721
D Control (fermented
beverages) 722
References 723
Appendix I Objectives and
accomplishments of the
ICMSF 725
History and purpose 725
Functions and membership 725
Recent projects 726
Past and future 727
Appendix II ICMSF participants 729
Officers 729
Past members of the ICMSF 730
Members of the Latin American
Subcommission 731
Former members of the Latin American
Subcommission 732
Members of the South-East Asian
Subcommission 732
Appendix III Publications of the
ICMSF
Books 733
WHO publications 733
Other ICMSF technical papers 734
Translations 734
About the ICMSF 734
Index 737

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