174. Practical Pharmacology

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174. Practical Pharmacology

174. Practical Pharmacology

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 174

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Syllabus

Preface ix
Acknowledgements xi
1 Before Entering the Pharmacology Laboratory 1
1.1 Safety and Risk Assessment 1
1.2 The Laboratory Record Book 3
1.3 Use of Animals in Practical Pharmacology 4
1.4 Experimental Design 5
1.5 Units, Dilutions and Logarithms 7
1.5.1 Units of Mass 8
1.5.2 Units, Concentrations and Logarithms 8
1.5.3 Dilutions 9
1.5.4 Logarithms 10
1.6 Essential Statistics 12
1.6.1 Continuous Data – t-test, ANOVA,
Non-parametric Tests and Regression 12
1.6.2 Discontinuous Data – 2 and Fisher’s Exact Test 21
References 25
2 Basic Pharmacological Principles 27
2.1 Drug–Receptor Interaction 27
2.1.1 Agonists 27
2.1.2 Antagonists 30
2.1.3 Receptor Classification 36
2.2 Bioassays 37
2.2.1 Single-point Assays 38

2.2.2 Bracketing Assays, Three-point or 2×1 Assays 38
2.2.3 Multi-point Assays, Such As Four-point or
2×2 Assays 39
References 40
3 Isolated Tissues and Organs 43
3.1 Equipment for In Vitro Experiments 44
3.2 Organ Baths 45
3.3 Physiological Salt Solutions 46
3.4 Transducers 47
3.5 Recording Equipment and Software 49
3.6 Dosing 50
3.7 Electrically Stimulated Preparations 52
3.8 Fault-Finding of In Vitro Isolated Tissue Preparations 53
References 54
4 Smooth Muscle Preparations 55
4.1 Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Preparations 55
4.2 Guinea Pig Isolated Ileum 56
4.2.1 Concentration–Response Curves
for Cholinesters 57
4.2.2 Selective Antagonism 59
4.2.3 Specificity of Blood Cholinesterases 62
4.2.4 Quantification of the Potency of an Antagonist 64
4.2.5 Bioassays 67
4.2.6 Calcium Channel Blockers 73
4.2.7 Field-stimulated Guinea Pig Isolated Ileum 76
4.3 Rabbit Isolated Jejunum and the Finkleman Preparation 78
4.3.1 Adrenoceptor Sub-types 79
4.4 Isolated Tracheal Rings 80
4.5 Isolated Vas Deferens 82
Questions on Isolated Tissue Preparations 83
Answers to Problems 87
References 92
5 Cardiovascular Preparations 93
5.1 Isolated Perfused Heart Preparations 94
5.1.1 The Langendorff Preparation 95
5.1.2 Cardiac Interactions of Anti-asthma Drugs 98
5.1.3 The Rat Isolated Auricle Preparation 99

5.2 Thoracic Aorta Preparation 102
5.2.1 Drugs Regulating Nitric Oxide-mediated
Relaxation 104
References 105
6 Skeletal Muscle 107
6.1 Types of Skeletal Muscle 107
6.2 Multiply-Innervated Skeletal Muscle Preparations 108
6.2.1 Agonists and Antagonists Acting on the Frog
Rectus Abdominis 109
6.2.2 Action of Anticholinesterases on the Dorsal
Muscle of the Leech 111
6.3 Focally Innervated Skeletal Muscle Preparations 116
6.3.1 The Frog Gastrocnemius Muscle–Sciatic
Nerve Preparation 119
References 120
7 Isolated Cells 121
7.1 Freshly Isolated and Cultured Cells 121
7.1.1 Advantages of Isolated Cells 121
7.1.2 Cultured Cells 122
7.1.3 Cell Counting 122
7.2 Platelets 125
7.2.1 Inhibition of Aggregation by Nitric Oxide
Donors 127
7.3 Neutrophils 131
7.3.1 Measurement of NADPH Cytochrome c
Reductase 132
7.3.2 Measurement of Intracellular [Ca2+] 134
References 139
8 Biochemical Pharmacology 141
8.1 Pharmacological Applications of Common Biochemical
Techniques 141
8.2 Enzyme Inhibitors 142
8.3 Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors 143
8.4 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors 145
8.4.1 Sub-cellular Distribution of MAO Activity 146
8.4.2 Specificity of MAO Inhibitors for Isoenzymes 149
8.5 Thrombin Inhibitors 151
8.6 ATPase Inhibitors 155
References 158

9 Complementary Methods for Teaching Practical
Pharmacology 161
9.1 The Comparative Merits of Available Methods 161
9.2 Interpretation of Experimental Data 162
9.2.1 Behavioural Experiments 162
9.2.2 Analysis of Metabolites of
5-hydroxytryptamine 166
9.2.3 Radioligand Binding 167
Answers to Questions 171
References 176
10 Communicating Results 177
10.1 Preliminary Reports 177
10.1.1 Tables 178
10.1.2 Graphs 178
10.1.3 Bar Graphs 179
10.1.4 Preliminary Conclusions 179
10.2 Poster Presentations 180
10.3 Oral Presentations 181
10.4 Project Reports 183
10.5 Pharmacological Literature 184
10.6 How to Cite Scientific Information Sources 187
10.7 Plagiarism 188
References 188
Appendix 1: Molecular Weights of Commonly Used Drugs 189
Appendix 2: Useful Resources for Practical Pharmacology 191
Index 193

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