148. Pathology For Toxicologists

You are here: Home / Uncategorized / 148. Pathology For Toxicologists

148. Pathology For Toxicologists

148. Pathology For Toxicologists

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 148

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

1 The Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Routine Clinical Pathology Testing …………………………………………. 2
1.3 Clinical Pathology Panels ………………………………………………………. 4
1.4 How to Evaluate Clinical Pathology Data ………………………………… 5
1.4.1 Weight of the Evidence ……………………………………………….. 5
1.4.2 What Can Go Wrong? …………………………………………………. 6
1.4.3 Reference Ranges ………………………………………………………. 8
1.4.4 Statistical and Biological Signifi cance ………………………….. 10
References ……………………………………………………………………………………… 11
2 Hematology Highlights ………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.1 Hematopoiesis ………………………………………………………………………. 13
2.2 Erythrocytes …………………………………………………………………………. 15
2.3 Leukocytes …………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.3.1 Neutrophils ……………………………………………………………….. 18
2.3.2 Eosinophils ……………………………………………………………….. 20
2.3.3 Basophils …………………………………………………………………… 20
2.3.4 Monocytes …………………………………………………………………. 20
2.3.5 Lymphocytes ……………………………………………………………… 21
2.3.6 Differential Leukocyte Counts ……………………………………… 23
2.4 Thrombocytes (Platelets) ……………………………………………………….. 24
3 Blood and Urine Sampling …………………………………………………………….. 27
3.1 Blood Sampling ……………………………………………………………………. 27
3.1.1 Hematology Sampling ………………………………………………… 29
3.1.2 Clinical Chemistry Sampling ……………………………………….. 30
3.2 Blood Sampling Sites ……………………………………………………………. 31
3.3 Urine Sampling …………………………………………………………………….. 32

4 Species Specifics ……………………………………………………………………………. 35
4.1 Birds ……………………………………………………………………………………. 35
4.2 Cats …………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
4.3 Dogs ……………………………………………………………………………………. 37
4.4 Guinea Pigs ………………………………………………………………………….. 38
4.5 Hamsters ……………………………………………………………………………… 38
4.6 Mice ……………………………………………………………………………………. 39
4.7 Primates ………………………………………………………………………………. 40
4.8 Rabbits ………………………………………………………………………………… 40
4.9 Rats …………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
5 Hematology Diagnosis …………………………………………………………………… 43
5.1 Erythrocytes …………………………………………………………………………. 45
5.1.1 Erythrocytes [RBC] ……………………………………………………. 45
5.1.2 Erythrocyte Morphology……………………………………………… 46
5.1.3 Hematocrit [HCT, Hct, Ht, PCV] …………………………………. 50
5.1.4 Hemoglobin [Hb, HB, HGB, Hgb] ……………………………….. 51
5.1.5 Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin [MCH] ………………………… 51
5.1.6 Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
[MCHC] ……………………………………………………………………… 52
5.1.7 Mean Corpuscular Volume [MCV] ……………………………….. 52
5.1.8 Nucleated Erythrocytes [nRBC, NRBC, NucRBC]…………. 53
5.1.9 Reticulocytes [Ret, Retics] ………………………………………….. 54
5.2 Leukocytes …………………………………………………………………………… 55
5.2.1 Leukocytes, Total [WBC] ……………………………………………. 55
5.2.2 Differential Leukocyte Count [Diffs] ……………………………. 56
5.2.3 Basophils [Basos, Bas] ……………………………………………….. 56
5.2.4 Eosinophils [Eosins, Eos] ……………………………………………. 57
5.2.5 Lymphocytes [Lymphs, Lym] ………………………………………. 58
5.2.6 Monocytes [Monos, Mon] …………………………………………… 59
5.2.7 Neutrophils [Neuts, Segs, N. Seg.] ……………………………….. 60
5.2.8 Neutrophils, Band [Bands, I. Neut., N-Band] …………………. 61
5.2.9 Neutrophil: Lymphocyte Ratio [N:L Ratio]……………………. 62
5.3 Hemostasis …………………………………………………………………………… 63
5.3.1 Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
[APTT, aPTT, PTT] …………………………………………………….. 63
5.3.2 Bleeding Time [BT] ……………………………………………………. 64
5.3.3 Prothrombin Time [PT, Pro Time] ………………………………… 64
5.3.4 Thrombocytes (Platelets) [Thromb, Plate]……………………… 65
5.4 Bone Marrow ……………………………………………………………………….. 66
5.4.1 Myeloid: Erythroid Ratio [M:E Ratio] ………………………….. 66

6 Clinical Chemistry ………………………………………………………………………… 67
6.1 Alanine Aminotransferase [ALT, ALAT, SGPT, GPT, PGPT] …….. 67
6.2 Albumin [Alb]………………………………………………………………………. 68
6.3 Albumin: Globulin Ratio [A:G, A/G] ………………………………………. 69
6.4 Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum [ALP, AP, SAP, ALKP, Alk Phos] …. 69
6.5 Aspartate Aminotransferase [AST, ASAT, SGOT, GOT, PGOT] …. 70
6.6 Bicarbonate [Bicarb, HCO3−] ………………………………………………….. 71
6.7 Bile Acids, Total [TBA] …………………………………………………………. 72
6.8 Bilirubin, Conjugated (Direct) [C-Bili, CB, D-Bili] …………………… 72
6.9 Bilirubin, Total [T-Bili, Bili] …………………………………………………… 73
6.10 Bilirubin, Unconjugated (Indirect) [U-Bili, UB, UCB, I-Bili] …….. 73
6.11 Blood Urea Nitrogen [BUN, UN] ……………………………………………. 74
6.12 Calcium [Ca, Ca++, Ca2+, Calc] ………………………………………………. 75
6.13 Carbon Dioxide, Partial Pressure [pCO2, p(a)CO2] ……………………. 75
6.14 Chloride [Cl, Cl−] ………………………………………………………………….. 76
6.15 Cholesterol, Total [Chol] ……………………………………………………….. 77
6.16 Cholinesterase [ChE, CHE] ……………………………………………………. 77
6.17 Creatine Kinase [CK, CPK] ……………………………………………………. 79
6.18 Creatinine [Creat, Cre, Cr] ……………………………………………………… 79
6.19 Fibrinogen [F, PF, FBG] ………………………………………………………… 80
6.20 Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase [GGT, GTP] ……………………………… 80
6.21 Globulins [GLOB] ………………………………………………………………… 81
6.22 Glucose [GLU, Gluc] …………………………………………………………….. 82
6.23 Glutamate Dehydrogenase [GLDH, GLD, GDH] ……………………… 82
6.24 Lactate Dehydrogenase [LD, LDH] ………………………………………… 83
6.25 Magnesium [Mg, Mg++] …………………………………………………………. 84
6.26 Methemoglobin [metHb] ……………………………………………………….. 84
6.27 5’ Nucleotidase [5’-NT] …………………………………………………………. 85
6.28 Oxygen, Partial Pressure [pO2, p(a)O2] ……………………………………. 86
6.29 pH ………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
6.29.1 Metabolic Alkalosis: pH ↑ HCO3

− ↑ pCO2 Normal ……….. 87

6.29.2 Respiratory Alkalosis: pH ↑ HCO3

− Normal pCO2 ↓ ……… 88

6.29.3 Metabolic Acidosis: pH ↓ HCO3

− ↓ pCO2 Normal ………… 88

6.29.4 Respiratory Acidosis: pH ↓ HCO3

− Normal pCO2 ↑ ………. 89
6.30 Phosphorus, Inorganic [P, Phos, Pi] …………………………………………. 89
6.31 Potassium [K, K+] …………………………………………………………………. 90
6.32 Sodium [Na, Na+] ………………………………………………………………….. 91
6.33 Sorbitol Dehydrogenase [SDH] ………………………………………………. 92
6.34 Total Protein [TP, T. PROT] ……………………………………………………. 92
6.35 Triglycerides (Serum Lipoproteins) [TG, TRIG] ………………………. 93
6.36 Uric Acid [UA] …………………………………………………………………….. 94
Contents

x
7 Urinalysis Diagnosis ………………………………………………………………………. 95
7.1 Biliburin [Bili] ……………………………………………………………………… 96
7.2 Color …………………………………………………………………………………… 97
7.3 Glucose [GLU, Gluc] …………………………………………………………….. 98
7.4 Hemoglobin [Hb, HGB, Hgb] ………………………………………………… 99
7.5 Ketones ……………………………………………………………………………….. 99
7.6 Occult Blood in Urine ……………………………………………………………. 100
7.7 pH ………………………………………………………………………………………. 100
7.8 Sediment ……………………………………………………………………………… 101
7.9 Specifi c Gravity [SG]…………………………………………………………….. 104
7.10 Total Protein [TP, T. Prot] ………………………………………………………. 105
7.11 Turbidity ……………………………………………………………………………… 106
7.12 Urobilinogen [Urobl] …………………………………………………………….. 106
7.13 Volume ………………………………………………………………………………… 107
8 Hematology Glossary …………………………………………………………………….. 109
9 Clinical Pathology Panels ………………………………………………………………. 145
About the Author………………………………………………………………………………… 151

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Medifit  Courses Demo Certificate 

48 hours delivery

| International acceptance | Medical based | Job oriented | Lifetime validity | Most economical |

 

555 INR Demo Certificate – 2 months duration

Demo Certificate – 6 months duration

48 hours delivery after fees payment

48 hours delivery after fees payment

 

Medifit 48 hours Delivery

  Get your Certificates delivered by online mode in 48 hours after Fees payment. We try to deliver certificates in 24 hours, but the committed delivery hours are 48. Its,

Pay Today &
get Tomorrow

procedure, only by Medifit.

LIFETIME VALIDITY

Medifit issues Lifetime validity certificates for all Online Courses provided. No need to renew the certificates every 2 or 3 years. All Courses Certificates of Medifit are having Lifetime Validity. No need to renew these certificates every 2 or 3 years.

 

What makes the certificates of Medifit to get it recognized Internationally?

Vast number of students applying for Job in international market of Fitness through Medifits Online Courses Certificates. And most importantly, the Medical standards maintained, helps to acquire jobs internationally. This gives very strong International acceptance to Certificates of Medifit Courses.

 

ABOUT MEDIFIT ACADEMY CERTIFICATION COURSE:

Medifit Education Online Academy is an innovative, digital and engaging education platform that delivers fast track accredited courses and skills development courses instantly online, with no time limits, enabling individuals to study anywhere and anytime. We are proud to offer international standard courses that have helped our students build their careers across the globe.

HOW DO MEDIFIT ONLINE CERTIFICATE COURSES HELP?

Short term Professional Courses International Standards courses Opens Global opportunities Career defining Courses Skill Development Programmes Knowledge in short span Learn at your own pace Certification of Completion Immediate Earning Opportunities Positive Social Impact Optimistic Psychological Benefits Improved Standard of Living Study from anywhere & anytime Very Economical Fees

Leave a Reply