145. Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology

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145. Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology

145. Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 145

FEES: 555/- INR only

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Foreword William J. Ledger ………………………… v
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
PART I. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
1. Anatomy of the Vulva . . . ………………………….. 1
Aikaterini Deliveliotou and George Creatsas
Introduction . . . . 1
Embryology of Vulva . . . . 1
Anatomy of the Vulva . . . . 2
Conclusion . . . . 7
References . . . . 7
2. Tissue Structure and Physiology of the Vulva …………….. 9
Miranda A. Farage and Howard I. Maibach
Introduction . . . . 9
Variations in Epithelial Structure . . . . 12
Blood Flow and Innervation …. 14
Hormonal Responsiveness . . . . 16
Immune Cell Populations . . . . 16
Tissue Hydration and Barrier Function . . . . 17
Permeability . . . . 18
Skin Irritation . . . . 19
Microbiology . . . . 20
Conclusion . . . . 22
References . . . . 22

3. Changes in the Vulva and Vagina Throughout Life . . . …….. 27
Miranda A. Farage, Howard I. Maibach, Aikaterini Deliveliotou, and
George Creatsas
Introduction . . . . 27
Infancy and Early Childhood . . . . 30
Puberty . . . . 32
Reproductive Years . . . . 34
Menopause and Older Age …. 36
Conclusion . . . . 39
References . . . . 39
4. Microbial Ecology of the Vulva ……………………… 43
Ronald W. Berg and Catherine C. Davis
Introduction . . . . 43
Anatomical Structure of the Vulva . . . . 43
Factors Controlling Microbial Growth and Diversity . . . . 44
Microflora of the Vulva . . . . 48
Conclusion . . . . 53
References . . . . 54
PART II. SYMPTOMS, DISEASES, AND THERAPIES
5. Are Vaginal Symptoms Ever Normal? . . . . . ……………. 57
Matthew Anderson, Alison Karasz, and Sarah Friedland
Introduction . . . . 57
Characteristics of Normal Vaginal Discharge . . . . 58
Characteristics of Normal Vaginal Odor . . . . 59
Normalcy of Irritative Symptoms . . . . 60
Conclusion . . . . 60
References . . . . 61
6. Common Diseases of the Vulva ……………………… 63
Diane Elas and Rudolph P. Galask
Introduction . . . . 63
Assessment . . . . 63
Physical Examination . . . . 64
Diseases that Cause Vulvar Burning . . . . 66
Diseases that Cause Vulvar Itching . . . . 71
Diseases that Cause Vulvar Pain . . . . 77
Diseases that Cause Vaginal Discharge . . . . 80
Conclusion . . . . 81
References . . . . 81

7. Idiopathic Vulvodynia . . …………………………. 85
Lauren D. Arnold and Gloria A. Bachmann
Introduction . . . . 85
Symptoms . . . . 87
Etiology . . . . 87
Prevalence . . . . 88
Demographics . . . . 89
Comorbid Conditions . . . . 89
Gynecologic History . . . . 90
Psychosocial and Sexual Aspects . . . . 90
Diagnosis . . . . 90
Treatment . . . . 94
Conclusion . . . . 96
References . . . . 97
8. Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome . . . ………………….. 101
Miranda A. Farage and Rudolph P. Galask
Introduction . . . . 101
Definition and Disease Characteristics …. 101
Prevalence and Patient Demographics . . . . 103
Differential Diagnosis . . . . 104
Etiology . . . . 105
Management . . . . 107
Conclusion . . . . 110
References . . . . 111
9. Vulvar Therapies: Evidence Vs. Testimony . …………… 115
Natalie Moulton-Levy and Howard I. Maibach
Introduction . . . . 115
Vulvodynia …. 115
Eczematous and Papulosquamous Vulvar Dermatoses . . . . 117
Benign Vulvar Nodules or Tumors . . . . 123
Infectious Diseases . . . . 123
Vulvar Neoplasm …. 138
Conclusion . . . . 142
References . . . . 143
PART III. MENSES, HYGIENE, AND PRODUCTS
10. The Menstrual Cycle, the Composition of Menses, and
the Effect of Menses on the Skin . ………………….. 151
Miranda A. Farage, William H. Hood, and Paula J. Adams Hillard
Introduction . . . . 151
The Menstrual Cycle . . . . 152

Composition and Properties of Menses …. 155
Effects of Menses and Venous Blood on the Skin . . . . 160
Conclusion . . . . 163
References . . . . 164
11. The Menstrual Cycle and the Skin …………………. 167
Birgit Drexler, Michael Landthaler, and Silvia Hohenleutner
Introduction . . . . 167
Hormonal Changes in the Course of the
Menstrual Cycle …. 167
Influence of the Sex Hormones on the Skin …. 168
Premenstrual Syndrome . . . . 171
Menstrual Cycle and Associated Skin Disorders . . . . 172
Conclusion . . . . 179
References . . . . 179
12. Genital Hygiene: Culture, Practices, and Health Impact . . . . . 183
Miranda A. Farage and Mario Bramante
Introduction . . . . 183
Genital Hygiene of Infants . . . . 183
Genital Hygiene Among Premenarchal Girls . . . . 184
Genital Hygiene Among Women of
Reproductive Age . . . . 188
Genital Hygiene Among Older Women . . . . 204
Conclusion . . . . 208
References . . . . 208
13. Products for Vulvar Hygiene . …………………….. 217
Miranda A. Farage and Lisa Lennon
Introduction . . . . 217
Cleanliness and Odor-Control Products . . . . 217
Menstrual Protection Products . . . . 223
Products for Incontinence Control . . . . 227
Other Products Used on the Vulva . . . . 228
Medications . . . . 229
Conclusion . . . . 230
References . . . . 230
PART IV. ETHNICITY AND SOCIOLOGY
14. Vulva Ethnic Differences: An Overview . . . …………… 235
Marina Goldovsky and Howard I. Maibach
Introduction . . . . 235

Assessments of Variable Characteristics
of Ethnically/Racially Different Skin . . . . 236
Lipid Content . . . . 247
Clinical Observations …. 249
Conclusion . . . . 249
References . . . . 252
15. Female Genital Alterations: A Sociological Perspective . . …. 255
Samar A. Farage
Introduction . . . . 255
The Management of Sexuality as a Problem:
Postmasturbation Disease . . . . 259
Types of Female Genital Alterations . . . . 263
Procedures of the 19th and 20th Centuries . . . . 264
Contemporary Female Genital Alterations
in North America …. 266
Conclusion . . . . 267
References . . . . 267
PART V. INVESTIGATIONAL METHODS
16. Bioengineering Methods for the Vulva ………………. 271
Sibylle Schliemann, Britta Opper, and Peter Elsner
Introduction . . . . 271
Common Bioengineering Techniques …. 272
Measuring Mechanical Properties …. 277
Conclusion . . . . 277
References . . . . 277
17. Transepidermal Water Loss Dynamics of Human
Vulvar and Thigh Skin . ………………………… 281
Raphael Warren, Michaelle B. Jones, and Peter Elsner
Introduction . . . . 281
Evaluation of Transepidermal Water Loss . . . . 282
Transepidermal Water Loss Findings …. 283
Conclusion . . . . 284
References . . . . 285
18. Vulvar Toxicology . ……………………………. 287
Christina Y. Wang and Howard I. Maibach
Introduction . . . . 287
Irritation of the Vulva . . . . 288
Bioengineering Methods of Assessment . . . . 290
Contents xiii

Behind the Knee Test . . . . 290
Vulvar Dermatitis . . . . 291
Contact Urticaria . . . . 294
Conclusion . . . . 295
References . . . . 295
19. Consumer Research and In-Market Comments . ……….. 297
Brigitte Nijs
Introduction . . . . 297
What Do Women Want from a Feminine Hygiene Pad? …. 297
Consumer Research Process for Feminine
Hygiene Products . . . . 298
Quality Assurance for Production of Feminine
Hygiene Products . . . . 300
Consumer Comments from Market Use . . . . 301
Conclusion . . . . 302
Reference . . . . 302
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

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