139. Clinical Chemical Pathology

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139. Clinical Chemical Pathology

139. Clinical Chemical Pathology



CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses


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1. Introductory.
Relation of laboratory tests to clinical diagnosis
-Limitations of laboratory methods-Taking
Sl)eeimens-Preservation of specimE’ns.
II. The Acid-Base Balance of the Blood
Drfinition of pH – pH of blood-Action of
buffers – Acidosis and alkalosis – Causes of
acidosis – Causes of alkalosis – Laboratory
investigation of acidosis and alkalosis.
III. Glycosuria and Diabetes

Renal threshold value for sugar-Glycosuria-
Normal blood sugar curve-” Lag” typE’ of curve – Diabetes mellitus – Ketosis – Glucose toleranc(‘ tE’sts-Blood sugar curves in

diabetes-Internal secretions and sugar toler. ance-Routine investigations-H ypoglycll’mia
-Diabetes insipidus.
IY. Renal Function Tests
Functions of thE’ kidney-Albuminuria-Excre·
tion and retention of nitrogE’nous waste pro·

ducts-Conc(‘ntrating power of the kidney-
Excretion and retention of chloride-Acidosis

in renal disease-Blood phosphate, sulphate

and calcium in renal disease-Acute nepliritis-
Chronic nephritis-Surgical conditions-Blood

urea-nitrogen-.i\laclean’s urea. concentration
test-Calvert’s range of function test-de
“Tesse1ow’s chloride concentration test–Phenol
sulphone phthalein ter.t-UfIl’mitt-Oxaluria–
v. Liver Function Tests

Functions of the liver-Tests based on meta-
bolic functions – Lrevulose tolerance tE’st-

Galactose tolerance test-Jaundice-Van den

Bergh test-Fouchet’s test-Icteric index-
Urobilin in. urine-Blood cholesterol in cholc-
litlIiasis – Dye tests – Cholecystography – Roger’s reaction – Roch and Schiff’s test-
Widal’s test-Blood fibrinogen and coagulation

VI. The To:rremias of Pregnancy

“Maternal” and “Ovular” theories-Exccs-
sive vomiting in pregnancy-Albuminuria in

pregnancy-Prc-eclamptic and nephritic toxre-
mia-Laboratory findings-Eclampsia.

VII. Tests of Gastric Function. Fractional Test
l’AOD 86

Single specimen tests-Ewald test meal-
Fractional tcst meal-Normal findings-Find-
ings in disease–Rl’al and apparent achlorhydria – Hyperchlorhydria – Hypochlorhydria and

achlorhydria-Cancer of the stomach-Chronic
gastritis-Occult blood in falces.
VIII. The Investigation of Pancreatic and Intestinal
Conditions 112

Acute pancreatitis-Direct investigation of pan-
creatic secretion – Indirect investigation-
Creatorrhma-Fat in falces in pancreatic condi-
tions – Intestinal conditions – Cooliac disease

-Blood in fmces-l\Iucus in freces-Indicanuria.
IX. Tests on the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid
Changes in number and type of cells-Gold
sol test-Changes ill. protein-Changes in
chloride-Changes in urea-Changes in glucose
-Meningeal permeability-Usc of tests in
difil’rontial diagnosis-Conditions showing acute
meningeal symptoms-Conditions showing acute
and subacute cerebral symptoms-Conditions
showing spinal cord symptoms – Conditions

showing conus terminalis, cauda equina or bilateral sciatic nerve symptoms-Tabes dor-
salis. 125

X. Basal Metabolism
Basal metabolic rate (B.M.R.)-Respiratory
quotient-Methods of determining B.M.R.-

Douglas bag method-Benedict method-Clini-
cal value of B.M.R. determinations-Reed’s

formula-Respiratory quotient in diabetes and
XI. Anoxremia
Types of anoxremia-Blood findings in anoxre- mia-Cyanosis–Dyspnooa-Oxygen treatment

in anoxromia-l\Iethods of oxygen administra-
tion-Haldane’s apparatus-Davies and Gil-
christ’s apparatus-Davies’ apparatus.

XII. Gout
Exogenous and endogenous uric acid-Blood
uric acid in gout and nephritis-Effect of drugs on blood uric acid.
XIII. Changes in Cholesterol, Phosphorus, Calcium of

the Blood-Tetany, Rickets 174
Changes in blood cholesterol-Changes in blood
calcium-Tetany-Effect of monovalent and
divalent kations on nerve excitability-Tetany
following removal ofparathyroids-Guanidin and

tetany-Alkalosis and tetany-Changes in in-
organic phosphorus of blood-Rickets-Ossifica·

tion in rickets-Anti·rachitic vitamin-Acidosis
and rickets-Acidosis and osteomalacia-Blood
phosphorus following fractures.
XIV. Ossification; Calcification; Calculus Formation. 182

Theories of ossification and calcification-
Formation of calculi – Gall-stones – Urinary

calculi – Pancreatic calculi – Salivary calculi
-Prostatic calculi.
XV. Vitamins and Deficiency Diseases

Accessory food factors-Tests for vitamins-
Sources and properties of vitamin A-Effects

of deficiency of vitamin A-Sources and pro·
perties of vitamin D-Vitamin D produced by

irradiation-Ergostcrol-Effects of dl.’ficil.’ncy of
vitamin D-Sourccs and properties of vitamin

B-Effects of deficiency of vitamiu B-Pellagra-
preventing- factor-Sourcefl and properties of

vitamin C-Effects of llcficicllcy of vitamin C–
Sources and propertil.’s of vitamin E-Effects

of dl.’fil.’il.’ncy of vitamin E-Lactation-promot-
inA factor~Some practical considerations-
Vitamins ill verse.




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