134. Pathology General

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134. Pathology General

134. Pathology General

 

 

CATEGORY: Medical & Medicine – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 134

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Letter to the Student ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. i
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. v
Chapter 1: Introduction to Pathology
I. Learning objectives ………………………………………………………………………………. 1
II. The core aspects of diseases in pathology ………………………………………………. 2
III. Diagnostic methods used in pathology ……………………………………………………. 3
IV. Causes of diseases ………………………………………………………………………………. 7
V. Course of diseases ………………………………………………………………………………. 9
VI. Outcomes & consequences of diseases ………………………………………………….. 10
VII. Clinical & biologic death ………………………………………………………………………… 10
VIII. Exercises …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
Chapter 2: Cellular Reactions to Injury
I. Learning objectives …………………………………………………………………………….. 14
II. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
III. Types of cellular adaptation …………………………………………………………………. 15
IV. Reversible cellular changes & accumulations …………………………………………. 16
V. Cell death ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
VI. Pathologic calcification ………………………………………………………………………… 22
VII. Exercises …………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
Chapter 3: Inflammation
I. Learning objectives …………………………………………………………………………….. 24
II. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
III. Acute inflammation ……………………………………………………………………………… 25
IV. Chemical mediators of acute inflammation …………………………………………….. 30
V. Morphology of acute inflammation ………………………………………………………… 31
VI. Effects of inflammation ………………………………………………………………………… 33
VII. Course of acute inflammation ……………………………………………………………… 34
VIII. Chronic inflammation …………………………………………………………………………… 35
IX. Systemic effects of inflammation …………………………………………………………… 38
X. Exercises …………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
Chapter 4: Healing
I. Learning Objective ……………………………………………………………………………… 42
II. Definition of healing …………………………………………………………………………….. 42
III. Processes of healing …………………………………………………………………………… 42
IV. Molecular control of healing process ……………………………………………………… 48

V. Wound healing …………………………………………………………………………………… 49
VI. Factors that influence wound healing …………………………………………………….. 51
VII. Complications of wound healing …………………………………………………………… 54
VIII. Fracture healing …………………………………………………………………………………. 56
IX. Exercises …………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
Chapter 5: Hemodynamic Disorders
I. Learning objectives ………………………………………………………………………………… 61
II. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
III. Edema …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
IV. Hyperemia & congestion ……………………………………………………………………….. 68
V. Hemorrhage ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
VI. Hemostasis …………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
VII. Thrombosis …………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
VIII. Embolism ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
IX. Infarction ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
X. Shock …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
XI. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) ………………………………………….. 89
XII. Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
Chapter 6: Genetic Diseases
I. Learning objectives …………………………………………………………………………………… 98
II. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
III. Mutation: The basis of genetic diseases …………………………………………………….. 100
IV. Categories of genetic diseases …………………………………………………………………… 104
V. Mendelian disorders …………………………………………………………………………………. 104
VI. Chromosomal disorders …………………………………………………………………………….. 120
VII. Multifactorial disorders ………………………………………………………………………………. 135
VIII. Single gene disorders with nonclassic inheritance ……………………………………….. 136
IX. Exercises ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
Chapter 7: Immunopathology
I. Learning objectives ………………………………………………………………………………. 139
II. Hypersensitivity Reactions …………………………………………………………………….. 139
III. Immunologic Tolerance …………………………………………………………………………. 146
IV. Autoimmune Diseases ………………………………………………………………………….. 147
V. Immunodeficiency Diseases ………………………………………………………………….. 153
VI. Exercises …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163
Chapter 8: Selected Tropical Diseases
I. Learning objectives………………………………………………………………………………….. 165
II. Typhoid Fever ………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
III. Acute Osteomyelitis ……………………………………………………………………………….. 166

IV. Tuberculosis …………………………………………………………………………………………. 168
V. Leprosy ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 173
VI. Syphillis ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174
VII. Malaria ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
VIII. Leishmaniasis …………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
IX. Schisistosomiasis ………………………………………………………………………………….. 181
X. Fungal infections (Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis, Aspergillosis) …………………….. 183
XI. Viral infections ………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
XII. Exercises …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
Chapter 9: Neoplasia

I. Learning objectives ………………………………………………………………………… 190
II. Definition and nomenclature …………………………………………………………….. 190
III. Characteristics of Neoplasms …………………………………………………………… 191
IV. Cancer Epidemiology ……………………………………………………………………… 196
V. Molecular Basis of Cancer (Carcinogenesis) ……………………………………… 198
VI. Clinical Features of Neoplasms ………………………………………………………… 204
VII. Laboratory Diagnosis of Cancer ……………………………………………………….. 207
VIII. Exercises ………………………………………………………………………………………. 211

Chapter 10: Metabolic Diseases

I. Learning objectives ………………………………………………………………………………. 213
II. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
III. Diabetes Mellitus ………………………………………………………………………………… 214
IV. Gout …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 225
V. Exercises …………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
Chapter 11: Environmental Diseases

I. Learning objectives ………………………………………………………………………………. 231
II. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
III. Air Pollution ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
IV. Industrial Exposures …………………………………………………………………………… 234
V. Tobacco Smoking ……………………………………………………………………………….. 238
VI.Chemical & Drug Injury ………………………………………………………………………… 239
VII. Physical Injuries ………………………………………………………………………………… 244
VIII. Exercises ………………………………………………………………………………………… 250

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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